Caroline Elaine Clifford

    • 512 Citations
    • 14 h-Index
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    Research Output 1991 2015

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    Article
    2015
    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Characterization of cokes from delayed Co-Coking of decant oil, coal, resid, and cracking catalyst

    Gül, Ö., Mitchell, G., Etter, R., Miller, J. & Clifford, C. E., Jan 15 2015, In : Energy and Fuels. 29, 1, p. 21-34 14 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal
    Coking
    Coke
    Oils
    Catalysts
    30 Citations (Scopus)

    Interactions of Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal with solvents: A review of solvent swelling and extraction literature

    Mathews, J. P., Clifford, C. E. & Painter, P., Mar 19 2015, In : Energy and Fuels. 29, 3, p. 1279-1294 16 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal
    Bituminous coal
    Swelling
    Ashes
    Pyridine
    2014

    Comparative study on structural parameters of graphitized coal-petroleum co-cokes and pennsylvania anthracites, with implications for their use

    Nyathi, M. S., Burgess Clifford, C. & Schobert, H. H., Mar 20 2014, In : Energy and Fuels. 28, 3, p. 2280-2285 6 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Anthracite
    Graphite
    Coal
    Petroleum
    Crude oil
    2013
    35 Citations (Scopus)

    Characterization of graphitic materials prepared from different rank Pennsylvania anthracites

    Nyathi, M. S., Clifford, C. B. & Schobert, H. H., Jan 1 2013, In : Fuel. 114, p. 244-250 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Anthracite
    Coal
    Graphitization
    Minerals
    Lamellar structures
    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Subcritical water reactions of lignin-related model compounds with nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide gases

    Hill Bembenic, M. A. & Burgess Clifford, C. E., Nov 21 2013, In : Energy and Fuels. 27, 11, p. 6681-6694 14 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Lignin
    Carbon Monoxide
    Carbon Dioxide
    Carbon monoxide
    Hydrogen
    2012
    5 Citations (Scopus)

    Effect of petroleum feedstock and reaction conditions on the structure of coal-petroleum co-cokes and heat-treated products

    Nyathi, M. S., Clifford, C. E. & Schobert, H. H., Jul 19 2012, In : Energy and Fuels. 26, 7, p. 4413-4419 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal
    Petroleum
    Feedstocks
    Crude oil
    Coke
    15 Citations (Scopus)

    Subcritical water reactions of a hardwood derived organosolv lignin with nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide gases

    Hill Bembenic, M. A. & Burgess Clifford, C. E., Jul 19 2012, In : Energy and Fuels. 26, 7, p. 4540-4549 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Lignin
    Hardwoods
    Carbon Monoxide
    Carbon Dioxide
    Carbon monoxide
    2009
    5 Citations (Scopus)

    Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    Gül, Ö., Clifford, C., Rudnick, L. R. & Schobert, H. H., May 21 2009, In : Energy and Fuels. 23, 5, p. 2637-2645 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal
    Bituminous coal
    Coking
    Oils
    Liquids
    13 Citations (Scopus)

    Solvent extraction of bituminous coals using light cycle oil: Characterization of diaromatic products in liquids

    Griffith, J. M., Clifford, C. E., Rudnick, L. R. & Schobert, H. H., Sep 17 2009, In : Energy and Fuels. 23, 9, p. 4553-4561 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal
    Bituminous coal
    Solvent extraction
    Oils
    Liquids
    6 Citations (Scopus)

    The effect of calcination on reactive milling of anthracite as potential precursor for graphite production

    Clifford, C. E., Narayanan, D. L., Van Essendelft, D. T., Jain, P., Sakti, A. & Lueking, A., Dec 1 2009, In : Fuel processing technology. 90, 12, p. 1515-1523 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Anthracite
    Graphite
    Coal
    Ball milling
    Calcination
    2008
    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Role of carbon order in structural transformations and hydrogen evolution induced by reactive ball milling in cyclohexene

    Sakti, A., Wonderling, N. M., Clifford, C. E. B., Badding, J. V. & Lueking, A. D., Nov 6 2008, In : Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 112, 44, p. 17427-17435 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Graphite
    Ball milling
    balls
    Hydrogen
    Carbon
    2007
    12 Citations (Scopus)

    High heat sink jet fuels. 2. Stabilization of a JP-8 with model refined chemical oil/light cycle oil (RCO/LCO)-derived stabilizers

    Sobkowiak, M., Clifford, C. E. & Beaver, B., Mar 1 2007, In : Energy and Fuels. 21, 2, p. 982-986 5 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Jet fuel
    Heat sinks
    Oils
    Stabilization
    Tetralones
    9 Citations (Scopus)

    High heat sink jet fuels. 3. On the mechanisms of action of model refined chemical oil/light cycle oil (RCO/LCO)-derived stabilizers for JP-8

    Beaver, B., Sobkowiak, M., Clifford, C. E., Wei, Y. & Fedek, M., Mar 1 2007, In : Energy and Fuels. 21, 2, p. 987-991 5 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Jet fuel
    Heat sinks
    Oils
    Tetralones
    Thermal stress
    14 Citations (Scopus)

    The effect of HCl and NaOH treatment on structural transformations in a ball-milled anthracite after thermal and chemical processing

    Lueking, A., Gutierrez, H. R., Jain, P., Van Essandelft, D. T. & Clifford, C. E., Oct 1 2007, In : Carbon. 45, 11, p. 2297-2306 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Diamond
    Anthracite
    Coal
    Diamonds
    Carbon
    2006
    32 Citations (Scopus)

    Combined hydrogen production and storage with subsequent carbon crystallization

    Lueking, A., Gutierrez, H. R., Fonseca, D. A., Narayanan, D. L., Van Essendelft, D., Jain, P. & Clifford, C. E., Jun 21 2006, In : Journal of the American Chemical Society. 128, 24, p. 7758-7760 3 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Hydrogen storage
    Hydrogen production
    Crystallization
    Hydrogen
    Carbon
    18 Citations (Scopus)

    High heat sink jet fuels. Part 1. Development of potential oxidative and pyrolytic additives for JP-8

    Beaver, B. D., Clifford, C. B., Fedak, M. G., Gao, L., Iyer, P. S. & Sobkowiak, M., Jul 1 2006, In : Energy and Fuels. 20, 4, p. 1639-1646 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    phosphine
    Jet fuel
    Heat sinks
    Oxygenation
    Molecular oxygen
    2005
    73 Citations (Scopus)

    Effect of expanded graphite lattice in exfoliated graphite nanofibers on hydrogen storage

    Lucking, A. D., Pan, L., Narayanan, D. L. & Clifford, C. E. B., Jul 7 2005, In : Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 109, 26, p. 12710-12717 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Graphite
    Hydrogen storage
    Nanofibers
    Hydrogen
    graphite
    43 Citations (Scopus)
    Jet fuel
    Deposits
    Degradation
    Experiments
    Hot Temperature
    2004
    7 Citations (Scopus)

    Chemistry of tetralin in an oxygenated model fuel system: Insights into the development of new fuel additives

    Beaver, B., Fedak, M., Wei, Y., Clifford, C. B. & Sobkowiak, M., Aug 1 2004, In : American Chemical Society, Division of Petroleum Chemistry, Preprints. 49, 4, p. 461-462 2 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Fuel additives
    Fuel systems

    Chemistry of tetralin in an oxygenated model fuel system: Insights into the development of new fuel additives

    Beaver, B. D., Fedak, M., Wei, Y., Clifford, C. E. & Sobkowiak, M., Oct 20 2004, In : ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts. 228, 2

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Tetralones
    Fuel additives
    Fuel systems
    Jet fuel
    Thermodynamic stability

    Evaluation of additives to inhibit oxidative and pyrolytic deposition of jet fuels

    Clifford, C. E., Sobkowiak, M. & Beaver, B., 2004, In : ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts. 228, 2

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Jet fuel
    Phosphines
    Fuel additives
    Fuel systems
    Jet engines
    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Evaluation of additives to inhibit oxidative and pyrolytic deposition of jet fuels

    Sobkowiak, M., Clifford, C. E. B. & Beaver, B., Aug 1 2004, In : American Chemical Society, Division of Petroleum Chemistry, Preprints. 49, 4, p. 450-452 3 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Jet fuel
    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Induced defects in carbonaceous materials for hydrogen storage

    Lueking, A., Clifford, C. E. & Narayanan, D. L., Sep 2004, In : Am Chem Soc Div Fuel Chem Prepr. 49, 2, p. 843-844 2 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Hydrogen storage
    Nanofibers
    Graphite
    Defects
    Amorphous carbon
    18 Citations (Scopus)

    New directions for non-fuel uses of anthracites

    Andrésen, J. M., Clifford, C. E., Pappano, P. J. & Schobert, H. H., Aug 25 2004, In : Fuel processing technology. 85, 12, p. 1373-1392 20 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Anthracite
    Coal
    Carbon
    Activated carbon
    Binders

    Possible use of additives to provide JP-900 from a JP-8

    Beaver, B. D., Fedak, M., Sobkowiak, M. & Clifford, C. E., Oct 20 2004, In : ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts. 228, 2

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Phosphines
    Fuel additives
    Coatings
    Fuel systems
    Jet engines
    7 Citations (Scopus)

    Synthesis of pitch materials from hydrogenation of anthracite

    Andrésen, J. M., Zhang, Y., Clifford, C. E. & Schobert, H. H., Aug 25 2004, In : Fuel processing technology. 85, 12, p. 1361-1372 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Anthracite
    Coal
    Hydrogenation
    Hydrogen
    Carbon
    45 Citations (Scopus)

    The use of catalytic hydrogenation to intercept carbohydrates in a dilute acid hydrolysis of biomass to effect a clean separation from lignin

    Robinson, J. M., Burgess, C. E., Bently, M. A., Brasher, C. D., Horne, B. O., Lillard, D. M., Macias, J. M., Mandal, H. D., Mills, S. C., O'Hara, K. D., Pon, J. T., Raigoza, A. F., Sanchez, E. H. & Villarreal, J. S., May 2004, In : Biomass and Bioenergy. 26, 5, p. 473-483 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    polyols
    hydrogenation
    Polyols
    acid hydrolysis
    Carbohydrates
    2000
    17 Citations (Scopus)

    Direct liquefaction for production of high yields of feedstocks for specialty chemicals or thermally stable jet fuels

    Burgess, C. E. & Schobert, H. H., May 2000, In : Fuel processing technology. 64, 1, p. 57-72 16 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal
    Jet fuel
    Liquefaction
    Feedstocks
    Caustics
    1998
    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Conversion of low-rank coals and lignins to phenolic products by catalytic hydrogenolysis in aqueous base

    Burgess, C. E., Robinson, J. M., O'Hara, K., Rashidi, J., Sanchez, E. H. & Greenwood, P. F., Dec 1 1998, In : ACS Division of Fuel Chemistry, Preprints. 43, 2, p. 335-338 4 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Hydrogenolysis
    Lignin
    Coal
    26 Citations (Scopus)
    Coal
    Liquefaction
    Gas chromatography
    Mass spectrometry
    Pyrolysis
    4 Citations (Scopus)

    Structural characterization of some North American coals

    Burgess, E., Redlich, P. J., Sakurovs, R. J., Jackson, W. R. & Marshall, M., Dec 1 1998, In : Energy and Fuels. 12, 3, p. 570-573 4 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal
    Bituminous coal
    Waxes
    Pyrolysis
    Hydrocarbons
    1997
    7 Citations (Scopus)

    Effects of added transition metals and two-stage heating on reactions of sodium-aluminate-treated coals in water with CO, H2 and CO-H2 mixtures

    Hulston, C. K. J., Redlich, P. J., Jackson, W. R., Larkins, F. P., Marshall, M. & Burgess, C. E., Feb 1997, In : Fuel. 76, 3, p. 247-256 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal
    Transition metals
    Sodium
    Heating
    Water
    1996
    14 Citations (Scopus)
    Coal
    Liquefaction
    Molybdenum
    Hydrogen
    Catalysts
    8 Citations (Scopus)

    The origin of aliphatic hydrocarbons in brown coal liquefaction: Reactions of a model acid, alcohol and ester

    Bongers, G. D., Clifford, C. E., Chan, J. S. T., Jackson, W. R., Patti, A. F. & Marshall, M., Jan 1 1996, In : Fuel. 75, 5, p. 591-596 6 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal liquefaction
    Coal
    Lignite
    Carbon Monoxide
    Hydrocarbons
    5 Citations (Scopus)

    Unique fractionation of biomass to polyols provides inexpensive feedstock for liquid fuels process

    Robinson, J. M., Burgess, C. E., Mandal, H. D., Brasher, C. D., O'Hara, K. & Holland, P., Dec 1 1996, In : ACS Division of Fuel Chemistry, Preprints. 41, 3, p. 1090-1092 3 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal liquefaction
    Polyols
    Liquid fuels
    Fractionation
    Feedstocks
    1991
    19 Citations (Scopus)

    Behaviour of tetrahydroquinoline in temperature-staged liquefaction of subbituminous coal

    Clifford, C. E. & Schobert, H. H., Jan 1 1991, In : Fuel. 70, 3, p. 372-379 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Coal
    Liquefaction
    Catalysts
    Oils
    Hydrogen