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Research interests

Dr. Clare Sample’s lab focuses on the Epstein-Barr virus, one of the seven human viruses associated with cancer. EBV-associated cancers are largely restricted to B-cell or epithelial cancers. Her research is divided between the latent lifecycle of the virus in B cells, which is associated with cellular proliferation, and the lifecycle in stratified epithelial cells, where the default is high levels of viral replication in the differentiated layers.

In B cells, EBV drives cellular proliferation to enlarge the pool of infected cells, eventually establishing long-term latency in memory B cells. Dr. Sample has investigated the function of the latency-associated EBNA3A and EBNA3C that are essential for EBV-driven proliferation and demonstrated that these are transcription factors that function through a cellular intermediate, the CSL protein, which is the intracellular signaling protein of the Notch pathway.

More recently, her lab has demonstrated that the EBNA3 proteins inhibit the cellular pathways that mediate G1 arrest. The lifecycle of EBV in epithelial compartment is less well-understood despite the fact that EBV must cross the epithelial barrier to infect a new host and that the most common EBV-associated cancers are epithelial-derived. In 2014, Dr. Sample’s lab established the use of organotypic cultures to study the lifecycle of EBV in epithelial cells in stratified epithelium. Unlike epithelial cells in monolayer culture, EBV can infect stratified epithelium, where differentiation spontaneously induces productive replication (new virus production). Her team has recently identified a viral protein that plays an important role in viral spread and may also be involved in viral entry.

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  • Research Output

    • 2052 Citations
    • 20 h-Index
    • 31 Article
    • 3 Chapter
    • 1 Review article

    Generation and infection of organotypic cultures with Epstein-Barr virus

    Temple, R. M., Meyers, C. & Sample, C. E., Jan 1 2017, Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press Inc., p. 65-78 14 p. (Methods in Molecular Biology; vol. 1532).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  • 1 Scopus citations
  • 62 Scopus citations

    Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A Promotes Cellular Proliferation by Repression of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1

    Tursiella, M. L., Bowman, E. R., Wanzeck, K. C., Throm, R. E., Liao, J., Zhu, J. & Sample, C. E., Oct 1 2014, In : PLoS pathogens. 10, 10

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 10 Scopus citations

    Vorinostat downregulates CD30 and decreases brentuximab vedotin efficacy in human lymphocytes

    Hasanali, Z. S., Epner, E. M., Feith, D. J., Loughran, T. P. & Sample, C. E., Dec 1 2014, In : Molecular cancer therapeutics. 13, 12, p. 2784-2792 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 3 Scopus citations

    Contributions of CTCF and DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3B to Epstein-Barr virus restricted latency

    Hughes, D. J., Marendy, E. M., Dickerson, C. A., Yetming, K. D., Sample, C. E. & Sample, J. T., Jan 1 2012, In : Journal of virology. 86, 2, p. 1034-1045 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 20 Scopus citations