2000  years of North Atlantic-Arctic climate

Jeffrey D. Auger, Paul A. Mayewski, Kirk A. Maasch, Keah C. Schuenemann, Andrew Mark Carleton, Sean D. Birkel, Jasmine E. Saros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The North Atlantic-Arctic boundary is highly variable due to the transports of heat and moisture through the Gulf Stream and polar jet stream. The North Atlantic storm track generally follows the Gulf Stream and terminates near southeast Greenland and Iceland as the Icelandic Low. The Icelandic Low is the main driver of the North Atlantic Oscillation, particularly during winter months as the baroclinic zone expands to lower latitudes, correlating with temperature and precipitation in many areas around the North Atlantic. Understanding how atmospheric circulation, temperature, and precipitation changes in this region is important to build robust projections of how these variables will change, especially under natural and anthropogenic forcings. Here, climate proxies correlating to the Icelandic Low, summer air temperature, and annual precipitation build an understanding of how these variables changed over the last 2000 years. Through the natural climate shifts of this period — Roman Warm Period, Dark Ages Cold Period, Medieval Climate Anomaly, and Little Ice Age — it is shown that storm frequency decreases as temperature increases and the Icelandic Low increases in pressure (i.e., becomes weaker). However, these climate changes are not simultaneous, and their amplitudes are not similar across the region. Keeping regionality rather than a pan-Arctic average better explains natural variability of each sub-region and how each sub-region has evolved climatically due to anthropogenic forcings of greenhouse gases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalQuaternary Science Reviews
Volume216
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 15 2019

Fingerprint

Arctic
Gulf Stream
Arctic region
climate
atmospheric circulation
temperature
Iceland
scotophase
Greenland
greenhouse gases
jet stream
storm track
air temperature
Little Ice Age
ice
Medieval
North Atlantic Oscillation
climate change
heat
projection

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Archaeology
  • Archaeology
  • Geology

Cite this

Auger, J. D., Mayewski, P. A., Maasch, K. A., Schuenemann, K. C., Carleton, A. M., Birkel, S. D., & Saros, J. E. (2019). 2000  years of North Atlantic-Arctic climate. Quaternary Science Reviews, 216, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.05.020
Auger, Jeffrey D. ; Mayewski, Paul A. ; Maasch, Kirk A. ; Schuenemann, Keah C. ; Carleton, Andrew Mark ; Birkel, Sean D. ; Saros, Jasmine E. / 2000  years of North Atlantic-Arctic climate. In: Quaternary Science Reviews. 2019 ; Vol. 216. pp. 1-17.
@article{6e0fb25c99a84729a5c4aa585be0bfc4,
title = "2000  years of North Atlantic-Arctic climate",
abstract = "The North Atlantic-Arctic boundary is highly variable due to the transports of heat and moisture through the Gulf Stream and polar jet stream. The North Atlantic storm track generally follows the Gulf Stream and terminates near southeast Greenland and Iceland as the Icelandic Low. The Icelandic Low is the main driver of the North Atlantic Oscillation, particularly during winter months as the baroclinic zone expands to lower latitudes, correlating with temperature and precipitation in many areas around the North Atlantic. Understanding how atmospheric circulation, temperature, and precipitation changes in this region is important to build robust projections of how these variables will change, especially under natural and anthropogenic forcings. Here, climate proxies correlating to the Icelandic Low, summer air temperature, and annual precipitation build an understanding of how these variables changed over the last 2000 years. Through the natural climate shifts of this period — Roman Warm Period, Dark Ages Cold Period, Medieval Climate Anomaly, and Little Ice Age — it is shown that storm frequency decreases as temperature increases and the Icelandic Low increases in pressure (i.e., becomes weaker). However, these climate changes are not simultaneous, and their amplitudes are not similar across the region. Keeping regionality rather than a pan-Arctic average better explains natural variability of each sub-region and how each sub-region has evolved climatically due to anthropogenic forcings of greenhouse gases.",
author = "Auger, {Jeffrey D.} and Mayewski, {Paul A.} and Maasch, {Kirk A.} and Schuenemann, {Keah C.} and Carleton, {Andrew Mark} and Birkel, {Sean D.} and Saros, {Jasmine E.}",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.05.020",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "216",
pages = "1--17",
journal = "Quaternary Science Reviews",
issn = "0277-3791",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

Auger, JD, Mayewski, PA, Maasch, KA, Schuenemann, KC, Carleton, AM, Birkel, SD & Saros, JE 2019, '2000  years of North Atlantic-Arctic climate', Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 216, pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.05.020

2000  years of North Atlantic-Arctic climate. / Auger, Jeffrey D.; Mayewski, Paul A.; Maasch, Kirk A.; Schuenemann, Keah C.; Carleton, Andrew Mark; Birkel, Sean D.; Saros, Jasmine E.

In: Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 216, 15.07.2019, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - 2000  years of North Atlantic-Arctic climate

AU - Auger, Jeffrey D.

AU - Mayewski, Paul A.

AU - Maasch, Kirk A.

AU - Schuenemann, Keah C.

AU - Carleton, Andrew Mark

AU - Birkel, Sean D.

AU - Saros, Jasmine E.

PY - 2019/7/15

Y1 - 2019/7/15

N2 - The North Atlantic-Arctic boundary is highly variable due to the transports of heat and moisture through the Gulf Stream and polar jet stream. The North Atlantic storm track generally follows the Gulf Stream and terminates near southeast Greenland and Iceland as the Icelandic Low. The Icelandic Low is the main driver of the North Atlantic Oscillation, particularly during winter months as the baroclinic zone expands to lower latitudes, correlating with temperature and precipitation in many areas around the North Atlantic. Understanding how atmospheric circulation, temperature, and precipitation changes in this region is important to build robust projections of how these variables will change, especially under natural and anthropogenic forcings. Here, climate proxies correlating to the Icelandic Low, summer air temperature, and annual precipitation build an understanding of how these variables changed over the last 2000 years. Through the natural climate shifts of this period — Roman Warm Period, Dark Ages Cold Period, Medieval Climate Anomaly, and Little Ice Age — it is shown that storm frequency decreases as temperature increases and the Icelandic Low increases in pressure (i.e., becomes weaker). However, these climate changes are not simultaneous, and their amplitudes are not similar across the region. Keeping regionality rather than a pan-Arctic average better explains natural variability of each sub-region and how each sub-region has evolved climatically due to anthropogenic forcings of greenhouse gases.

AB - The North Atlantic-Arctic boundary is highly variable due to the transports of heat and moisture through the Gulf Stream and polar jet stream. The North Atlantic storm track generally follows the Gulf Stream and terminates near southeast Greenland and Iceland as the Icelandic Low. The Icelandic Low is the main driver of the North Atlantic Oscillation, particularly during winter months as the baroclinic zone expands to lower latitudes, correlating with temperature and precipitation in many areas around the North Atlantic. Understanding how atmospheric circulation, temperature, and precipitation changes in this region is important to build robust projections of how these variables will change, especially under natural and anthropogenic forcings. Here, climate proxies correlating to the Icelandic Low, summer air temperature, and annual precipitation build an understanding of how these variables changed over the last 2000 years. Through the natural climate shifts of this period — Roman Warm Period, Dark Ages Cold Period, Medieval Climate Anomaly, and Little Ice Age — it is shown that storm frequency decreases as temperature increases and the Icelandic Low increases in pressure (i.e., becomes weaker). However, these climate changes are not simultaneous, and their amplitudes are not similar across the region. Keeping regionality rather than a pan-Arctic average better explains natural variability of each sub-region and how each sub-region has evolved climatically due to anthropogenic forcings of greenhouse gases.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066821236&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85066821236&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.05.020

DO - 10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.05.020

M3 - Article

VL - 216

SP - 1

EP - 17

JO - Quaternary Science Reviews

JF - Quaternary Science Reviews

SN - 0277-3791

ER -

Auger JD, Mayewski PA, Maasch KA, Schuenemann KC, Carleton AM, Birkel SD et al. 2000  years of North Atlantic-Arctic climate. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2019 Jul 15;216:1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.05.020