In situ mechanical tester was coupled with micro-CT to investigate the effect of alveolar bone socket geometry and implant anchorage on bone–implant contact interface and the resulting strain distributions in bone. Compressive axial load was applied to occlusal surface of teeth to simulate chewing force. Then, the teeth were extracted and dental implants were placed immediately. The same compressive load was applied to bone–implant complexes. Using image processing and digital volume correlation, the displacement and strain field in the mandible bone were calculated and compared for the bone–tooth structures and bone–implant structures. Under implant loading, high strain concentration was observed in some regions in the mandible bone. In contrast, the strain distribution in bone under tooth loading was relatively uniform. The variations in the strain distribution can be attributed to the differences in the anatomies/geometries, mechanical properties and contact area with bone for implants and teeth. The clinical implications of the results are discussed for the designs of bioinspired dental implants.