Additive manufacturing technologies, including three-dimensional printing (3DP), have unlocked new possibilities for bone tissue engineering. Long-term regeneration of normal anatomic structure, shape, and function is clinically important subsequent to bone trauma, tumor, infection, nonunion after fracture, or congenital abnormality. Due to the great complexity in structure and properties of bone across the population, along with variation in the type of injury or defect, currently available treatments for larger bone defects that support load often fail in replicating the anatomic shape and structure of the lost bone tissue. 3DP could provide the ability to print bone substitute materials with a controlled chemistry, shape, porosity, and topography, thus allowing printing of personalized bone grafts customized to the patient and the specific clinical condition. 3DP and related fabrication approaches of bone grafts may one day revolutionize the way clinicians currently treat bone defects. This article gives a brief overview of the current advances in 3DP and existing materials with an emphasis on ceramics used for 3DP of bone scaffolds. Furthermore, it addresses some of the current limitations of this technique and discusses potential future directions and strategies for improving fabrication of personalized artificial bone constructs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science (miscellaneous)
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering