7 Log Virus Removal in a Simple Functionalized Sand Filter

Laxmicharan Samineni, Boya Xiong, Ratul Chowdhury, Andrew Pei, Louise Kuehster, Huiran Wang, Roman Dickey, Paula Espinoza Soto, Lynnicia Massenburg, Thanh H. Nguyen, Costas Maranas, Darrell Velegol, Manish Kumar, Stephanie Velegol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Viral contamination of drinking water due to fecal contamination is difficult to detect and treat effectively, leading to frequent outbreaks worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to report on the molecular mechanism for unprecedented high virus removal from a practical sand filter. Sand filters functionalized using a water extract of Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds, functionalized sand (f-sand) filters, achieved a ∼7 log10 virus removal. These tests were conducted with MS2 bacteriophage, a recognized surrogate for pathogenic norovirus and rotavirus. We studied the molecular mechanism of this high removal since it can have important implications for sand filtration, the most common water treatment technology worldwide. Our data reveal that the virus removal activity of f-sand is due to the presence of a chitin-binding protein, M. oleifera chitin-binding protein (MoCBP) on f-sand. Standard column experiments were supported by proteomic analysis and molecular docking simulations. Our simulations show that MoCBP binds preferentially to MS2 capsid proteins demonstrating that specific molecular interactions are responsible for enhanced virus removal. In addition, we simplified the process of making f-sand and evinced how it could be regenerated using saline water. At present, no definitive solution exists for the challenge of treating fecally contaminated drinking and irrigation water for viruses without using technologies that demand high energy or chemical consumption. We propose functionalized sand (f-sand) filters as a highly effective, energy-efficient, and practical technology for virus removal applicable to both developing and developed countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12706-12714
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume53
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 5 2019

Fingerprint

Viruses
virus
Sand
filter
sand
Chitin
chitin
Carrier Proteins
protein
Drinking Water
Contamination
Bacteriophages
Molecular interactions
proteomics
removal
bacteriophage
Capsid Proteins
drinking
Water treatment
Irrigation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Samineni, L., Xiong, B., Chowdhury, R., Pei, A., Kuehster, L., Wang, H., ... Velegol, S. (2019). 7 Log Virus Removal in a Simple Functionalized Sand Filter. Environmental Science and Technology, 53(21), 12706-12714. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03734
Samineni, Laxmicharan ; Xiong, Boya ; Chowdhury, Ratul ; Pei, Andrew ; Kuehster, Louise ; Wang, Huiran ; Dickey, Roman ; Soto, Paula Espinoza ; Massenburg, Lynnicia ; Nguyen, Thanh H. ; Maranas, Costas ; Velegol, Darrell ; Kumar, Manish ; Velegol, Stephanie. / 7 Log Virus Removal in a Simple Functionalized Sand Filter. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2019 ; Vol. 53, No. 21. pp. 12706-12714.
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Samineni, L, Xiong, B, Chowdhury, R, Pei, A, Kuehster, L, Wang, H, Dickey, R, Soto, PE, Massenburg, L, Nguyen, TH, Maranas, C, Velegol, D, Kumar, M & Velegol, S 2019, '7 Log Virus Removal in a Simple Functionalized Sand Filter', Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 53, no. 21, pp. 12706-12714. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03734

7 Log Virus Removal in a Simple Functionalized Sand Filter. / Samineni, Laxmicharan; Xiong, Boya; Chowdhury, Ratul; Pei, Andrew; Kuehster, Louise; Wang, Huiran; Dickey, Roman; Soto, Paula Espinoza; Massenburg, Lynnicia; Nguyen, Thanh H.; Maranas, Costas; Velegol, Darrell; Kumar, Manish; Velegol, Stephanie.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 53, No. 21, 05.11.2019, p. 12706-12714.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - 7 Log Virus Removal in a Simple Functionalized Sand Filter

AU - Samineni, Laxmicharan

AU - Xiong, Boya

AU - Chowdhury, Ratul

AU - Pei, Andrew

AU - Kuehster, Louise

AU - Wang, Huiran

AU - Dickey, Roman

AU - Soto, Paula Espinoza

AU - Massenburg, Lynnicia

AU - Nguyen, Thanh H.

AU - Maranas, Costas

AU - Velegol, Darrell

AU - Kumar, Manish

AU - Velegol, Stephanie

PY - 2019/11/5

Y1 - 2019/11/5

N2 - Viral contamination of drinking water due to fecal contamination is difficult to detect and treat effectively, leading to frequent outbreaks worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to report on the molecular mechanism for unprecedented high virus removal from a practical sand filter. Sand filters functionalized using a water extract of Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds, functionalized sand (f-sand) filters, achieved a ∼7 log10 virus removal. These tests were conducted with MS2 bacteriophage, a recognized surrogate for pathogenic norovirus and rotavirus. We studied the molecular mechanism of this high removal since it can have important implications for sand filtration, the most common water treatment technology worldwide. Our data reveal that the virus removal activity of f-sand is due to the presence of a chitin-binding protein, M. oleifera chitin-binding protein (MoCBP) on f-sand. Standard column experiments were supported by proteomic analysis and molecular docking simulations. Our simulations show that MoCBP binds preferentially to MS2 capsid proteins demonstrating that specific molecular interactions are responsible for enhanced virus removal. In addition, we simplified the process of making f-sand and evinced how it could be regenerated using saline water. At present, no definitive solution exists for the challenge of treating fecally contaminated drinking and irrigation water for viruses without using technologies that demand high energy or chemical consumption. We propose functionalized sand (f-sand) filters as a highly effective, energy-efficient, and practical technology for virus removal applicable to both developing and developed countries.

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Samineni L, Xiong B, Chowdhury R, Pei A, Kuehster L, Wang H et al. 7 Log Virus Removal in a Simple Functionalized Sand Filter. Environmental Science and Technology. 2019 Nov 5;53(21):12706-12714. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03734