A catalog of X-ray point sources from two megaseconds of Chandra observations of the Galactic center

M. P. Muno, F. E. Bauer, F. K. Baganoff, R. M. Bandyopadhyay, G. C. Bower, William Nielsen Brandt, Patrick Sean Broos, A. Cotera, S. S. Eikenberry, G. P. Garmire, S. D. Hyman, N. E. Kassim, C. C. Lang, T. J.W. Lazio, C. Law, J. C. Mauerhan, M. R. Morris, T. Nagata, S. Nishiyama, S. Park & 6 others S. V. Ramìrez, S. R. Stolovy, R. Wijnands, Q. D. Wang, Z. Wang, F. Yusef-Zadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

107 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present a catalog of 9017 X-ray sources identified in Chandra observations of a 2°x 0°.8 field around the Galactic center. This enlarges the number of known X-ray sources in the region by a factor of 2.5. The catalog incorporates all of the ACIS-I observations as of 2007 August, which total 2.25 Ms of exposure. At the distance to the Galactic center (8 kpc), we are sensitive to sources with luminosities of 4 x 1032 erg s -1 (0.5-8.0 keV; 90% confidence) over an area of 1 deg2, and up to an order of magnitude more sensitive in the deepest exposure (1.0 Ms) around Sgr A*. The positions of 60% of our sources are accurate to < 1 " (95% confidence), and 20% have positions accurate to < 0".5. We search for variable sources, and find that 3% exhibit flux variations within an observation, and 10% exhibit variations from observation-to-observation. We also find one source, CXOUGC J174622.7-285218, with a periodic 1745 s signal (1.4% chance probability), which is probably a magnetically accreting cataclysmic variable. We compare the spatial distribution of X-ray sources to a model for the stellar distribution, and find 2.8σ evidence for excesses in the numbers of X-ray sources in the region of recent star formation encompassed by the Arches, Quintuplet, and Galactic center star clusters. These excess sources are also seen in the luminosity distribution of the X-ray sources, which is flatter near the Arches and Quintuplet than elsewhere in the field. These excess point sources, along with a similar longitudinal asymmetry in the distribution of diffuse iron emission that has been reported by other authors, probably have their origin in the young stars that are prominent at l ∼ 0°.1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)110-128
Number of pages19
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Volume181
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 8 2009

Fingerprint

point sources
catalogs
point source
x rays
arch
arches
erg
confidence
asymmetry
luminosity
spatial distribution
iron
cataclysmic variables
star clusters
distribution
star formation
stars
exposure

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Muno, M. P. ; Bauer, F. E. ; Baganoff, F. K. ; Bandyopadhyay, R. M. ; Bower, G. C. ; Brandt, William Nielsen ; Broos, Patrick Sean ; Cotera, A. ; Eikenberry, S. S. ; Garmire, G. P. ; Hyman, S. D. ; Kassim, N. E. ; Lang, C. C. ; Lazio, T. J.W. ; Law, C. ; Mauerhan, J. C. ; Morris, M. R. ; Nagata, T. ; Nishiyama, S. ; Park, S. ; Ramìrez, S. V. ; Stolovy, S. R. ; Wijnands, R. ; Wang, Q. D. ; Wang, Z. ; Yusef-Zadeh, F. / A catalog of X-ray point sources from two megaseconds of Chandra observations of the Galactic center. In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. 2009 ; Vol. 181, No. 1. pp. 110-128.
@article{68c4ccb6221e40d19c8e8afe5677d22d,
title = "A catalog of X-ray point sources from two megaseconds of Chandra observations of the Galactic center",
abstract = "We present a catalog of 9017 X-ray sources identified in Chandra observations of a 2°x 0°.8 field around the Galactic center. This enlarges the number of known X-ray sources in the region by a factor of 2.5. The catalog incorporates all of the ACIS-I observations as of 2007 August, which total 2.25 Ms of exposure. At the distance to the Galactic center (8 kpc), we are sensitive to sources with luminosities of 4 x 1032 erg s -1 (0.5-8.0 keV; 90{\%} confidence) over an area of 1 deg2, and up to an order of magnitude more sensitive in the deepest exposure (1.0 Ms) around Sgr A*. The positions of 60{\%} of our sources are accurate to < 1 {"} (95{\%} confidence), and 20{\%} have positions accurate to < 0{"}.5. We search for variable sources, and find that 3{\%} exhibit flux variations within an observation, and 10{\%} exhibit variations from observation-to-observation. We also find one source, CXOUGC J174622.7-285218, with a periodic 1745 s signal (1.4{\%} chance probability), which is probably a magnetically accreting cataclysmic variable. We compare the spatial distribution of X-ray sources to a model for the stellar distribution, and find 2.8σ evidence for excesses in the numbers of X-ray sources in the region of recent star formation encompassed by the Arches, Quintuplet, and Galactic center star clusters. These excess sources are also seen in the luminosity distribution of the X-ray sources, which is flatter near the Arches and Quintuplet than elsewhere in the field. These excess point sources, along with a similar longitudinal asymmetry in the distribution of diffuse iron emission that has been reported by other authors, probably have their origin in the young stars that are prominent at l ∼ 0°.1.",
author = "Muno, {M. P.} and Bauer, {F. E.} and Baganoff, {F. K.} and Bandyopadhyay, {R. M.} and Bower, {G. C.} and Brandt, {William Nielsen} and Broos, {Patrick Sean} and A. Cotera and Eikenberry, {S. S.} and Garmire, {G. P.} and Hyman, {S. D.} and Kassim, {N. E.} and Lang, {C. C.} and Lazio, {T. J.W.} and C. Law and Mauerhan, {J. C.} and Morris, {M. R.} and T. Nagata and S. Nishiyama and S. Park and Ram{\`i}rez, {S. V.} and Stolovy, {S. R.} and R. Wijnands and Wang, {Q. D.} and Z. Wang and F. Yusef-Zadeh",
year = "2009",
month = "9",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1088/0067-0049/181/1/110",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "181",
pages = "110--128",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series",
issn = "0067-0049",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "1",

}

Muno, MP, Bauer, FE, Baganoff, FK, Bandyopadhyay, RM, Bower, GC, Brandt, WN, Broos, PS, Cotera, A, Eikenberry, SS, Garmire, GP, Hyman, SD, Kassim, NE, Lang, CC, Lazio, TJW, Law, C, Mauerhan, JC, Morris, MR, Nagata, T, Nishiyama, S, Park, S, Ramìrez, SV, Stolovy, SR, Wijnands, R, Wang, QD, Wang, Z & Yusef-Zadeh, F 2009, 'A catalog of X-ray point sources from two megaseconds of Chandra observations of the Galactic center', Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, vol. 181, no. 1, pp. 110-128. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/181/1/110

A catalog of X-ray point sources from two megaseconds of Chandra observations of the Galactic center. / Muno, M. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Baganoff, F. K.; Bandyopadhyay, R. M.; Bower, G. C.; Brandt, William Nielsen; Broos, Patrick Sean; Cotera, A.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Garmire, G. P.; Hyman, S. D.; Kassim, N. E.; Lang, C. C.; Lazio, T. J.W.; Law, C.; Mauerhan, J. C.; Morris, M. R.; Nagata, T.; Nishiyama, S.; Park, S.; Ramìrez, S. V.; Stolovy, S. R.; Wijnands, R.; Wang, Q. D.; Wang, Z.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, Vol. 181, No. 1, 08.09.2009, p. 110-128.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A catalog of X-ray point sources from two megaseconds of Chandra observations of the Galactic center

AU - Muno, M. P.

AU - Bauer, F. E.

AU - Baganoff, F. K.

AU - Bandyopadhyay, R. M.

AU - Bower, G. C.

AU - Brandt, William Nielsen

AU - Broos, Patrick Sean

AU - Cotera, A.

AU - Eikenberry, S. S.

AU - Garmire, G. P.

AU - Hyman, S. D.

AU - Kassim, N. E.

AU - Lang, C. C.

AU - Lazio, T. J.W.

AU - Law, C.

AU - Mauerhan, J. C.

AU - Morris, M. R.

AU - Nagata, T.

AU - Nishiyama, S.

AU - Park, S.

AU - Ramìrez, S. V.

AU - Stolovy, S. R.

AU - Wijnands, R.

AU - Wang, Q. D.

AU - Wang, Z.

AU - Yusef-Zadeh, F.

PY - 2009/9/8

Y1 - 2009/9/8

N2 - We present a catalog of 9017 X-ray sources identified in Chandra observations of a 2°x 0°.8 field around the Galactic center. This enlarges the number of known X-ray sources in the region by a factor of 2.5. The catalog incorporates all of the ACIS-I observations as of 2007 August, which total 2.25 Ms of exposure. At the distance to the Galactic center (8 kpc), we are sensitive to sources with luminosities of 4 x 1032 erg s -1 (0.5-8.0 keV; 90% confidence) over an area of 1 deg2, and up to an order of magnitude more sensitive in the deepest exposure (1.0 Ms) around Sgr A*. The positions of 60% of our sources are accurate to < 1 " (95% confidence), and 20% have positions accurate to < 0".5. We search for variable sources, and find that 3% exhibit flux variations within an observation, and 10% exhibit variations from observation-to-observation. We also find one source, CXOUGC J174622.7-285218, with a periodic 1745 s signal (1.4% chance probability), which is probably a magnetically accreting cataclysmic variable. We compare the spatial distribution of X-ray sources to a model for the stellar distribution, and find 2.8σ evidence for excesses in the numbers of X-ray sources in the region of recent star formation encompassed by the Arches, Quintuplet, and Galactic center star clusters. These excess sources are also seen in the luminosity distribution of the X-ray sources, which is flatter near the Arches and Quintuplet than elsewhere in the field. These excess point sources, along with a similar longitudinal asymmetry in the distribution of diffuse iron emission that has been reported by other authors, probably have their origin in the young stars that are prominent at l ∼ 0°.1.

AB - We present a catalog of 9017 X-ray sources identified in Chandra observations of a 2°x 0°.8 field around the Galactic center. This enlarges the number of known X-ray sources in the region by a factor of 2.5. The catalog incorporates all of the ACIS-I observations as of 2007 August, which total 2.25 Ms of exposure. At the distance to the Galactic center (8 kpc), we are sensitive to sources with luminosities of 4 x 1032 erg s -1 (0.5-8.0 keV; 90% confidence) over an area of 1 deg2, and up to an order of magnitude more sensitive in the deepest exposure (1.0 Ms) around Sgr A*. The positions of 60% of our sources are accurate to < 1 " (95% confidence), and 20% have positions accurate to < 0".5. We search for variable sources, and find that 3% exhibit flux variations within an observation, and 10% exhibit variations from observation-to-observation. We also find one source, CXOUGC J174622.7-285218, with a periodic 1745 s signal (1.4% chance probability), which is probably a magnetically accreting cataclysmic variable. We compare the spatial distribution of X-ray sources to a model for the stellar distribution, and find 2.8σ evidence for excesses in the numbers of X-ray sources in the region of recent star formation encompassed by the Arches, Quintuplet, and Galactic center star clusters. These excess sources are also seen in the luminosity distribution of the X-ray sources, which is flatter near the Arches and Quintuplet than elsewhere in the field. These excess point sources, along with a similar longitudinal asymmetry in the distribution of diffuse iron emission that has been reported by other authors, probably have their origin in the young stars that are prominent at l ∼ 0°.1.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=68149138059&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=68149138059&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0067-0049/181/1/110

DO - 10.1088/0067-0049/181/1/110

M3 - Article

VL - 181

SP - 110

EP - 128

JO - Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series

JF - Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series

SN - 0067-0049

IS - 1

ER -