A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data

Jingfeng Xiao, Qianlai Zhuang, Beverly E. Law, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, David R. Cook, Ram Oren, Andrew D. Richardson, Sonia Wharton, Siyan Ma, Timothy A. Martin, Shashi B. Verma, Andrew E. Suyker, Russell L. Scott, Russell K. Monson, Marcy Litvak, David Y. Hollinger, Ge Sun, Kenneth J. Davis, Paul V. BolstadSean P. Burns, Peter S. Curtis, Bert G. Drake, Matthias Falk, Marc L. Fischer, David R. Foster, Lianhong Gu, Julian L. Hadley, Gabriel G. Katul, Roser Matamala, Steve McNulty, Tilden P. Meyers, J. William Munger, Asko Noormets, Walter C. Oechel, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Hans Peter Schmid, Gregory Starr, Margaret S. Torn, Steven C. Wofsy

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Abstract

The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000-2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005-2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km × 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr- 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these extreme climate events and disturbances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)576-591
Number of pages16
JournalRemote Sensing of Environment
Volume114
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2010

Fingerprint

moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer
MODIS
primary production
primary productivity
Productivity
Imaging techniques
productivity
Fluxes
eddy covariance
Towers
Ecosystems
ecosystems
climate
Carbon
carbon
ecosystem
upscaling
Drought
Hurricanes
carbon flux

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Soil Science
  • Geology
  • Computers in Earth Sciences

Cite this

Xiao, Jingfeng ; Zhuang, Qianlai ; Law, Beverly E. ; Chen, Jiquan ; Baldocchi, Dennis D. ; Cook, David R. ; Oren, Ram ; Richardson, Andrew D. ; Wharton, Sonia ; Ma, Siyan ; Martin, Timothy A. ; Verma, Shashi B. ; Suyker, Andrew E. ; Scott, Russell L. ; Monson, Russell K. ; Litvak, Marcy ; Hollinger, David Y. ; Sun, Ge ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Burns, Sean P. ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Drake, Bert G. ; Falk, Matthias ; Fischer, Marc L. ; Foster, David R. ; Gu, Lianhong ; Hadley, Julian L. ; Katul, Gabriel G. ; Matamala, Roser ; McNulty, Steve ; Meyers, Tilden P. ; Munger, J. William ; Noormets, Asko ; Oechel, Walter C. ; Paw U, Kyaw Tha ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Starr, Gregory ; Torn, Margaret S. ; Wofsy, Steven C. / A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data. In: Remote Sensing of Environment. 2010 ; Vol. 114, No. 3. pp. 576-591.
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title = "A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data",
abstract = "The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000-2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005-2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km × 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr- 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these extreme climate events and disturbances.",
author = "Jingfeng Xiao and Qianlai Zhuang and Law, {Beverly E.} and Jiquan Chen and Baldocchi, {Dennis D.} and Cook, {David R.} and Ram Oren and Richardson, {Andrew D.} and Sonia Wharton and Siyan Ma and Martin, {Timothy A.} and Verma, {Shashi B.} and Suyker, {Andrew E.} and Scott, {Russell L.} and Monson, {Russell K.} and Marcy Litvak and Hollinger, {David Y.} and Ge Sun and Davis, {Kenneth J.} and Bolstad, {Paul V.} and Burns, {Sean P.} and Curtis, {Peter S.} and Drake, {Bert G.} and Matthias Falk and Fischer, {Marc L.} and Foster, {David R.} and Lianhong Gu and Hadley, {Julian L.} and Katul, {Gabriel G.} and Roser Matamala and Steve McNulty and Meyers, {Tilden P.} and Munger, {J. William} and Asko Noormets and Oechel, {Walter C.} and {Paw U}, {Kyaw Tha} and Schmid, {Hans Peter} and Gregory Starr and Torn, {Margaret S.} and Wofsy, {Steven C.}",
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Xiao, J, Zhuang, Q, Law, BE, Chen, J, Baldocchi, DD, Cook, DR, Oren, R, Richardson, AD, Wharton, S, Ma, S, Martin, TA, Verma, SB, Suyker, AE, Scott, RL, Monson, RK, Litvak, M, Hollinger, DY, Sun, G, Davis, KJ, Bolstad, PV, Burns, SP, Curtis, PS, Drake, BG, Falk, M, Fischer, ML, Foster, DR, Gu, L, Hadley, JL, Katul, GG, Matamala, R, McNulty, S, Meyers, TP, Munger, JW, Noormets, A, Oechel, WC, Paw U, KT, Schmid, HP, Starr, G, Torn, MS & Wofsy, SC 2010, 'A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data', Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 576-591. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2009.10.013

A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data. / Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Chen, Jiquan; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Cook, David R.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Wharton, Sonia; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Verma, Shashi B.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Scott, Russell L.; Monson, Russell K.; Litvak, Marcy; Hollinger, David Y.; Sun, Ge; Davis, Kenneth J.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Schmid, Hans Peter; Starr, Gregory; Torn, Margaret S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

In: Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 114, No. 3, 15.03.2010, p. 576-591.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data

AU - Xiao, Jingfeng

AU - Zhuang, Qianlai

AU - Law, Beverly E.

AU - Chen, Jiquan

AU - Baldocchi, Dennis D.

AU - Cook, David R.

AU - Oren, Ram

AU - Richardson, Andrew D.

AU - Wharton, Sonia

AU - Ma, Siyan

AU - Martin, Timothy A.

AU - Verma, Shashi B.

AU - Suyker, Andrew E.

AU - Scott, Russell L.

AU - Monson, Russell K.

AU - Litvak, Marcy

AU - Hollinger, David Y.

AU - Sun, Ge

AU - Davis, Kenneth J.

AU - Bolstad, Paul V.

AU - Burns, Sean P.

AU - Curtis, Peter S.

AU - Drake, Bert G.

AU - Falk, Matthias

AU - Fischer, Marc L.

AU - Foster, David R.

AU - Gu, Lianhong

AU - Hadley, Julian L.

AU - Katul, Gabriel G.

AU - Matamala, Roser

AU - McNulty, Steve

AU - Meyers, Tilden P.

AU - Munger, J. William

AU - Noormets, Asko

AU - Oechel, Walter C.

AU - Paw U, Kyaw Tha

AU - Schmid, Hans Peter

AU - Starr, Gregory

AU - Torn, Margaret S.

AU - Wofsy, Steven C.

PY - 2010/3/15

Y1 - 2010/3/15

N2 - The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000-2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005-2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km × 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr- 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these extreme climate events and disturbances.

AB - The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000-2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005-2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km × 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr- 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these extreme climate events and disturbances.

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