A framework of pre-service teachers’ conceptions about digital literacy: Comparing the United States and Sweden

Alexandra List, Eva W. Brante, Holly L. Klee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We examine the conceptions of digital literacy of pre-service teachers in the United States (n = 188) and Sweden (n = 121). Pre-service teachers were asked to define digital literacy in an open-ended fashion and to select those skills that they considered to be essential for digital literacy from a list of 24 skills provided. Based on pre-service teachers' open-ended responses, four profiles of digital literacy conceptions, progressing in sophistication, were identified (i.e., technology focused, digital reading focused, goal directed, reflecting critical use). Moreover, pre-service teachers’ selections of skills or competencies essential for digital literacy were used in cluster analysis. Profiles of digital literacy conceptions were consistent across open-ended and selected-response forms of assessment. Important similarities and differences in conceptions of digital literacy across the United States and Sweden are discussed, as are implications for improving teacher education.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103788
JournalComputers and Education
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Education

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