A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host

B. Scott Gaudi, Keivan G. Stassun, Karen A. Collins, Thomas Beatty, George Zhou, David W. Latham, Allyson Bieryla, Jason D. Eastman, Robert J. Siverd, Justin R. Crepp, Erica J. Gonzales, Daniel J. Stevens, Lars A. Buchhave, Joshua Pepper, Marshall C. Johnson, Knicole D. Colon, Eric L.N. Jensen, Joseph E. Rodriguez, Valerio Bozza, Sebastiano Calchi NovatiGiuseppe D'Ago, Mary T. Dumont, Tyler Ellis, Clement Gaillard, Hannah Jang-Condell, David H. Kasper, Akihiko Fukui, Joao Gregorio, Ayaka Ito, John F. Kielkopf, Mark Manner, Kyle Matt, Norio Narita, Thomas E. Oberst, Phillip A. Reed, Gaetano Scarpetta, Denice C. Stephens, Rex R. Yeigh, Roberto Zambelli, B. J. Fulton, Andrew W. Howard, David J. James, Matthew Penny, Daniel Bayliss, Ivan A. Curtis, D. L. Depoy, Gilbert A. Esquerdo, Andrew Gould, Michael D. Joner, Rudolf B. Kuhn, Jonathan Labadie-Bartz, Michael B. Lund, Jennifer L. Marshall, Kim K. McLeod, Richard W. Pogge, Howard Relles, Christopher Stockdale, T. G. Tan, Mark Trueblood, Patricia Trueblood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The amount of ultraviolet irradiation and ablation experienced by a planet depends strongly on the temperature of its host star. Of the thousands of extrasolar planets now known, only six have been found that transit hot, A-type stars (with temperatures of 7,300-10,000 kelvin), and no planets are known to transit the even hotter B-type stars. For example, WASP-33 is an A-type star with a temperature of about 7,430 kelvin, which hosts the hottest known transiting planet, WASP-33b (ref. 1); the planet is itself as hot as a red dwarf star of type M (ref. 2). WASP-33b displays a large heat differential between its dayside and nightside, and is highly inflated-traits that have been linked to high insolation. However, even at the temperature of its dayside, its atmosphere probably resembles the molecule-dominated atmospheres of other planets and, given the level of ultraviolet irradiation it experiences, its atmosphere is unlikely to be substantially ablated over the lifetime of its star. Here we report observations of the bright star HD 195689 (also known as KELT-9), which reveal a close-in (orbital period of about 1.48 days) transiting giant planet, KELT-9b. At approximately 10,170 kelvin, the host star is at the dividing line between stars of type A and B, and we measure the dayside temperature of KELT-9b to be about 4,600 kelvin. This is as hot as stars of stellar type K4 (ref. 5). The molecules in K stars are entirely dissociated, and so the primary sources of opacity in the dayside atmosphere of KELT-9b are probably atomic metals. Furthermore, KELT-9b receives 700 times more extreme-ultraviolet radiation (that is, with wavelengths shorter than 91.2 nanometres) than WASP-33b, leading to a predicted range of mass-loss rates that could leave the planet largely stripped of its envelope during the main-sequence lifetime of the host star.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)514-518
Number of pages5
JournalNature
Volume546
Issue number7659
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 22 2017

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Planets
Atmosphere
Temperature
Hot Temperature
Metals
Radiation

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Gaudi, B. S., Stassun, K. G., Collins, K. A., Beatty, T., Zhou, G., Latham, D. W., ... Trueblood, P. (2017). A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host. Nature, 546(7659), 514-518. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22392
Gaudi, B. Scott ; Stassun, Keivan G. ; Collins, Karen A. ; Beatty, Thomas ; Zhou, George ; Latham, David W. ; Bieryla, Allyson ; Eastman, Jason D. ; Siverd, Robert J. ; Crepp, Justin R. ; Gonzales, Erica J. ; Stevens, Daniel J. ; Buchhave, Lars A. ; Pepper, Joshua ; Johnson, Marshall C. ; Colon, Knicole D. ; Jensen, Eric L.N. ; Rodriguez, Joseph E. ; Bozza, Valerio ; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi ; D'Ago, Giuseppe ; Dumont, Mary T. ; Ellis, Tyler ; Gaillard, Clement ; Jang-Condell, Hannah ; Kasper, David H. ; Fukui, Akihiko ; Gregorio, Joao ; Ito, Ayaka ; Kielkopf, John F. ; Manner, Mark ; Matt, Kyle ; Narita, Norio ; Oberst, Thomas E. ; Reed, Phillip A. ; Scarpetta, Gaetano ; Stephens, Denice C. ; Yeigh, Rex R. ; Zambelli, Roberto ; Fulton, B. J. ; Howard, Andrew W. ; James, David J. ; Penny, Matthew ; Bayliss, Daniel ; Curtis, Ivan A. ; Depoy, D. L. ; Esquerdo, Gilbert A. ; Gould, Andrew ; Joner, Michael D. ; Kuhn, Rudolf B. ; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan ; Lund, Michael B. ; Marshall, Jennifer L. ; McLeod, Kim K. ; Pogge, Richard W. ; Relles, Howard ; Stockdale, Christopher ; Tan, T. G. ; Trueblood, Mark ; Trueblood, Patricia. / A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host. In: Nature. 2017 ; Vol. 546, No. 7659. pp. 514-518.
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title = "A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host",
abstract = "The amount of ultraviolet irradiation and ablation experienced by a planet depends strongly on the temperature of its host star. Of the thousands of extrasolar planets now known, only six have been found that transit hot, A-type stars (with temperatures of 7,300-10,000 kelvin), and no planets are known to transit the even hotter B-type stars. For example, WASP-33 is an A-type star with a temperature of about 7,430 kelvin, which hosts the hottest known transiting planet, WASP-33b (ref. 1); the planet is itself as hot as a red dwarf star of type M (ref. 2). WASP-33b displays a large heat differential between its dayside and nightside, and is highly inflated-traits that have been linked to high insolation. However, even at the temperature of its dayside, its atmosphere probably resembles the molecule-dominated atmospheres of other planets and, given the level of ultraviolet irradiation it experiences, its atmosphere is unlikely to be substantially ablated over the lifetime of its star. Here we report observations of the bright star HD 195689 (also known as KELT-9), which reveal a close-in (orbital period of about 1.48 days) transiting giant planet, KELT-9b. At approximately 10,170 kelvin, the host star is at the dividing line between stars of type A and B, and we measure the dayside temperature of KELT-9b to be about 4,600 kelvin. This is as hot as stars of stellar type K4 (ref. 5). The molecules in K stars are entirely dissociated, and so the primary sources of opacity in the dayside atmosphere of KELT-9b are probably atomic metals. Furthermore, KELT-9b receives 700 times more extreme-ultraviolet radiation (that is, with wavelengths shorter than 91.2 nanometres) than WASP-33b, leading to a predicted range of mass-loss rates that could leave the planet largely stripped of its envelope during the main-sequence lifetime of the host star.",
author = "Gaudi, {B. Scott} and Stassun, {Keivan G.} and Collins, {Karen A.} and Thomas Beatty and George Zhou and Latham, {David W.} and Allyson Bieryla and Eastman, {Jason D.} and Siverd, {Robert J.} and Crepp, {Justin R.} and Gonzales, {Erica J.} and Stevens, {Daniel J.} and Buchhave, {Lars A.} and Joshua Pepper and Johnson, {Marshall C.} and Colon, {Knicole D.} and Jensen, {Eric L.N.} and Rodriguez, {Joseph E.} and Valerio Bozza and Novati, {Sebastiano Calchi} and Giuseppe D'Ago and Dumont, {Mary T.} and Tyler Ellis and Clement Gaillard and Hannah Jang-Condell and Kasper, {David H.} and Akihiko Fukui and Joao Gregorio and Ayaka Ito and Kielkopf, {John F.} and Mark Manner and Kyle Matt and Norio Narita and Oberst, {Thomas E.} and Reed, {Phillip A.} and Gaetano Scarpetta and Stephens, {Denice C.} and Yeigh, {Rex R.} and Roberto Zambelli and Fulton, {B. J.} and Howard, {Andrew W.} and James, {David J.} and Matthew Penny and Daniel Bayliss and Curtis, {Ivan A.} and Depoy, {D. L.} and Esquerdo, {Gilbert A.} and Andrew Gould and Joner, {Michael D.} and Kuhn, {Rudolf B.} and Jonathan Labadie-Bartz and Lund, {Michael B.} and Marshall, {Jennifer L.} and McLeod, {Kim K.} and Pogge, {Richard W.} and Howard Relles and Christopher Stockdale and Tan, {T. G.} and Mark Trueblood and Patricia Trueblood",
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Gaudi, BS, Stassun, KG, Collins, KA, Beatty, T, Zhou, G, Latham, DW, Bieryla, A, Eastman, JD, Siverd, RJ, Crepp, JR, Gonzales, EJ, Stevens, DJ, Buchhave, LA, Pepper, J, Johnson, MC, Colon, KD, Jensen, ELN, Rodriguez, JE, Bozza, V, Novati, SC, D'Ago, G, Dumont, MT, Ellis, T, Gaillard, C, Jang-Condell, H, Kasper, DH, Fukui, A, Gregorio, J, Ito, A, Kielkopf, JF, Manner, M, Matt, K, Narita, N, Oberst, TE, Reed, PA, Scarpetta, G, Stephens, DC, Yeigh, RR, Zambelli, R, Fulton, BJ, Howard, AW, James, DJ, Penny, M, Bayliss, D, Curtis, IA, Depoy, DL, Esquerdo, GA, Gould, A, Joner, MD, Kuhn, RB, Labadie-Bartz, J, Lund, MB, Marshall, JL, McLeod, KK, Pogge, RW, Relles, H, Stockdale, C, Tan, TG, Trueblood, M & Trueblood, P 2017, 'A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host', Nature, vol. 546, no. 7659, pp. 514-518. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22392

A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host. / Gaudi, B. Scott; Stassun, Keivan G.; Collins, Karen A.; Beatty, Thomas; Zhou, George; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Eastman, Jason D.; Siverd, Robert J.; Crepp, Justin R.; Gonzales, Erica J.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Pepper, Joshua; Johnson, Marshall C.; Colon, Knicole D.; Jensen, Eric L.N.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Bozza, Valerio; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; D'Ago, Giuseppe; Dumont, Mary T.; Ellis, Tyler; Gaillard, Clement; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kasper, David H.; Fukui, Akihiko; Gregorio, Joao; Ito, Ayaka; Kielkopf, John F.; Manner, Mark; Matt, Kyle; Narita, Norio; Oberst, Thomas E.; Reed, Phillip A.; Scarpetta, Gaetano; Stephens, Denice C.; Yeigh, Rex R.; Zambelli, Roberto; Fulton, B. J.; Howard, Andrew W.; James, David J.; Penny, Matthew; Bayliss, Daniel; Curtis, Ivan A.; Depoy, D. L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Gould, Andrew; Joner, Michael D.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Lund, Michael B.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; McLeod, Kim K.; Pogge, Richard W.; Relles, Howard; Stockdale, Christopher; Tan, T. G.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia.

In: Nature, Vol. 546, No. 7659, 22.06.2017, p. 514-518.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host

AU - Gaudi, B. Scott

AU - Stassun, Keivan G.

AU - Collins, Karen A.

AU - Beatty, Thomas

AU - Zhou, George

AU - Latham, David W.

AU - Bieryla, Allyson

AU - Eastman, Jason D.

AU - Siverd, Robert J.

AU - Crepp, Justin R.

AU - Gonzales, Erica J.

AU - Stevens, Daniel J.

AU - Buchhave, Lars A.

AU - Pepper, Joshua

AU - Johnson, Marshall C.

AU - Colon, Knicole D.

AU - Jensen, Eric L.N.

AU - Rodriguez, Joseph E.

AU - Bozza, Valerio

AU - Novati, Sebastiano Calchi

AU - D'Ago, Giuseppe

AU - Dumont, Mary T.

AU - Ellis, Tyler

AU - Gaillard, Clement

AU - Jang-Condell, Hannah

AU - Kasper, David H.

AU - Fukui, Akihiko

AU - Gregorio, Joao

AU - Ito, Ayaka

AU - Kielkopf, John F.

AU - Manner, Mark

AU - Matt, Kyle

AU - Narita, Norio

AU - Oberst, Thomas E.

AU - Reed, Phillip A.

AU - Scarpetta, Gaetano

AU - Stephens, Denice C.

AU - Yeigh, Rex R.

AU - Zambelli, Roberto

AU - Fulton, B. J.

AU - Howard, Andrew W.

AU - James, David J.

AU - Penny, Matthew

AU - Bayliss, Daniel

AU - Curtis, Ivan A.

AU - Depoy, D. L.

AU - Esquerdo, Gilbert A.

AU - Gould, Andrew

AU - Joner, Michael D.

AU - Kuhn, Rudolf B.

AU - Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan

AU - Lund, Michael B.

AU - Marshall, Jennifer L.

AU - McLeod, Kim K.

AU - Pogge, Richard W.

AU - Relles, Howard

AU - Stockdale, Christopher

AU - Tan, T. G.

AU - Trueblood, Mark

AU - Trueblood, Patricia

PY - 2017/6/22

Y1 - 2017/6/22

N2 - The amount of ultraviolet irradiation and ablation experienced by a planet depends strongly on the temperature of its host star. Of the thousands of extrasolar planets now known, only six have been found that transit hot, A-type stars (with temperatures of 7,300-10,000 kelvin), and no planets are known to transit the even hotter B-type stars. For example, WASP-33 is an A-type star with a temperature of about 7,430 kelvin, which hosts the hottest known transiting planet, WASP-33b (ref. 1); the planet is itself as hot as a red dwarf star of type M (ref. 2). WASP-33b displays a large heat differential between its dayside and nightside, and is highly inflated-traits that have been linked to high insolation. However, even at the temperature of its dayside, its atmosphere probably resembles the molecule-dominated atmospheres of other planets and, given the level of ultraviolet irradiation it experiences, its atmosphere is unlikely to be substantially ablated over the lifetime of its star. Here we report observations of the bright star HD 195689 (also known as KELT-9), which reveal a close-in (orbital period of about 1.48 days) transiting giant planet, KELT-9b. At approximately 10,170 kelvin, the host star is at the dividing line between stars of type A and B, and we measure the dayside temperature of KELT-9b to be about 4,600 kelvin. This is as hot as stars of stellar type K4 (ref. 5). The molecules in K stars are entirely dissociated, and so the primary sources of opacity in the dayside atmosphere of KELT-9b are probably atomic metals. Furthermore, KELT-9b receives 700 times more extreme-ultraviolet radiation (that is, with wavelengths shorter than 91.2 nanometres) than WASP-33b, leading to a predicted range of mass-loss rates that could leave the planet largely stripped of its envelope during the main-sequence lifetime of the host star.

AB - The amount of ultraviolet irradiation and ablation experienced by a planet depends strongly on the temperature of its host star. Of the thousands of extrasolar planets now known, only six have been found that transit hot, A-type stars (with temperatures of 7,300-10,000 kelvin), and no planets are known to transit the even hotter B-type stars. For example, WASP-33 is an A-type star with a temperature of about 7,430 kelvin, which hosts the hottest known transiting planet, WASP-33b (ref. 1); the planet is itself as hot as a red dwarf star of type M (ref. 2). WASP-33b displays a large heat differential between its dayside and nightside, and is highly inflated-traits that have been linked to high insolation. However, even at the temperature of its dayside, its atmosphere probably resembles the molecule-dominated atmospheres of other planets and, given the level of ultraviolet irradiation it experiences, its atmosphere is unlikely to be substantially ablated over the lifetime of its star. Here we report observations of the bright star HD 195689 (also known as KELT-9), which reveal a close-in (orbital period of about 1.48 days) transiting giant planet, KELT-9b. At approximately 10,170 kelvin, the host star is at the dividing line between stars of type A and B, and we measure the dayside temperature of KELT-9b to be about 4,600 kelvin. This is as hot as stars of stellar type K4 (ref. 5). The molecules in K stars are entirely dissociated, and so the primary sources of opacity in the dayside atmosphere of KELT-9b are probably atomic metals. Furthermore, KELT-9b receives 700 times more extreme-ultraviolet radiation (that is, with wavelengths shorter than 91.2 nanometres) than WASP-33b, leading to a predicted range of mass-loss rates that could leave the planet largely stripped of its envelope during the main-sequence lifetime of the host star.

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Gaudi BS, Stassun KG, Collins KA, Beatty T, Zhou G, Latham DW et al. A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host. Nature. 2017 Jun 22;546(7659):514-518. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22392