A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi

David S. Hibbett, Manfred Binder, Joseph F. Bischoff, Meredith Blackwell, Paul F. Cannon, Ove E. Eriksson, Sabine Huhndorf, Timothy James, Paul M. Kirk, Robert Lücking, H. Thorsten Lumbsch, François Lutzoni, P. Brandon Matheny, David J. McLaughlin, Martha J. Powell, Scott Redhead, Conrad L. Schoch, Joseph W. Spatafora, Joost A. Stalpers, Rytas VilgalysM. Catherine Aime, André Aptroot, Robert Bauer, Dominik Begerow, Gerald L. Benny, Lisa A. Castlebury, Pedro W. Crous, Yu Cheng Dai, Walter Gams, David M. Geiser, Gareth W. Griffith, Cécile Gueidan, David L. Hawksworth, Geir Hestmark, Kentaro Hosaka, Richard A. Humber, Kevin D. Hyde, Joseph E. Ironside, Urmas Kõljalg, Cletus P. Kurtzman, Karl Henrik Larsson, Robert Lichtwardt, Joyce Longcore, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Andrew Miller, Jean Marc Moncalvo, Sharon Mozley-Standridge, Franz Oberwinkler, Erast Parmasto, Valérie Reeb, Jack D. Rogers, Claude Roux, Leif Ryvarden, José Paulo Sampaio, Arthur Schüßler, Junta Sugiyama, R. Greg Thorn, Leif Tibell, Wendy A. Untereiner, Christopher Walker, Zheng Wang, Alex Weir, Michael Weiss, Merlin M. White, Katarina Winka, Yi Jian Yao, Ning Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1330 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A comprehensive phylogenetic classification of the kingdom Fungi is proposed, with reference to recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, and with input from diverse members of the fungal taxonomic community. The classification includes 195 taxa, down to the level of order, of which 16 are described or validated here: Dikarya subkingdom nov.; Chytridiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota phyla nov.; Monoblepharidomycetes, Neocallimastigomycetes class. nov.; Eurotiomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Mycocaliciomycetidae subclass. nov.; Acarosporales, Corticiales, Baeomycetales, Candelariales, Gloeophyllales, Melanosporales, Trechisporales, Umbilicariales ords. nov. The clade containing Ascomycota and Basidiomycota is classified as subkingdom Dikarya, reflecting the putative synapomorphy of dikaryotic hyphae. The most dramatic shifts in the classification relative to previous works concern the groups that have traditionally been included in the Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota. The Chytridiomycota is retained in a restricted sense, with Blastocladiomycota and Neocallimastigomycota representing segregate phyla of flagellated Fungi. Taxa traditionally placed in Zygomycota are distributed among Glomeromycota and several subphyla incertae sedis, including Mucoromycotina, Entomophthoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina, and Zoopagomycotina. Microsporidia are included in the Fungi, but no further subdivision of the group is proposed. Several genera of 'basal' Fungi of uncertain position are not placed in any higher taxa, including Basidiobolus, Caulochytrium, Olpidium, and Rozella.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)509-547
Number of pages39
JournalMycological Research
Volume111
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2007

Fingerprint

Chytridiomycota
Neocallimastigales
Neocallimastigomycota
Dikarya
Fungi
fungus
Zygomycota
phylogenetics
fungi
phylogeny
Caulochytrium
Mycocaliciomycetidae
Zoopagomycotina
Acarosporales
Melanosporales
Monoblepharidomycetes
Candelariales
Baeomycetales
Umbilicariales
Blastocladiomycota

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science

Cite this

Hibbett, D. S., Binder, M., Bischoff, J. F., Blackwell, M., Cannon, P. F., Eriksson, O. E., ... Zhang, N. (2007). A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycological Research, 111(5), 509-547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004
Hibbett, David S. ; Binder, Manfred ; Bischoff, Joseph F. ; Blackwell, Meredith ; Cannon, Paul F. ; Eriksson, Ove E. ; Huhndorf, Sabine ; James, Timothy ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Lücking, Robert ; Thorsten Lumbsch, H. ; Lutzoni, François ; Matheny, P. Brandon ; McLaughlin, David J. ; Powell, Martha J. ; Redhead, Scott ; Schoch, Conrad L. ; Spatafora, Joseph W. ; Stalpers, Joost A. ; Vilgalys, Rytas ; Aime, M. Catherine ; Aptroot, André ; Bauer, Robert ; Begerow, Dominik ; Benny, Gerald L. ; Castlebury, Lisa A. ; Crous, Pedro W. ; Dai, Yu Cheng ; Gams, Walter ; Geiser, David M. ; Griffith, Gareth W. ; Gueidan, Cécile ; Hawksworth, David L. ; Hestmark, Geir ; Hosaka, Kentaro ; Humber, Richard A. ; Hyde, Kevin D. ; Ironside, Joseph E. ; Kõljalg, Urmas ; Kurtzman, Cletus P. ; Larsson, Karl Henrik ; Lichtwardt, Robert ; Longcore, Joyce ; Miadlikowska, Jolanta ; Miller, Andrew ; Moncalvo, Jean Marc ; Mozley-Standridge, Sharon ; Oberwinkler, Franz ; Parmasto, Erast ; Reeb, Valérie ; Rogers, Jack D. ; Roux, Claude ; Ryvarden, Leif ; Sampaio, José Paulo ; Schüßler, Arthur ; Sugiyama, Junta ; Thorn, R. Greg ; Tibell, Leif ; Untereiner, Wendy A. ; Walker, Christopher ; Wang, Zheng ; Weir, Alex ; Weiss, Michael ; White, Merlin M. ; Winka, Katarina ; Yao, Yi Jian ; Zhang, Ning. / A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. In: Mycological Research. 2007 ; Vol. 111, No. 5. pp. 509-547.
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abstract = "A comprehensive phylogenetic classification of the kingdom Fungi is proposed, with reference to recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, and with input from diverse members of the fungal taxonomic community. The classification includes 195 taxa, down to the level of order, of which 16 are described or validated here: Dikarya subkingdom nov.; Chytridiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota phyla nov.; Monoblepharidomycetes, Neocallimastigomycetes class. nov.; Eurotiomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Mycocaliciomycetidae subclass. nov.; Acarosporales, Corticiales, Baeomycetales, Candelariales, Gloeophyllales, Melanosporales, Trechisporales, Umbilicariales ords. nov. The clade containing Ascomycota and Basidiomycota is classified as subkingdom Dikarya, reflecting the putative synapomorphy of dikaryotic hyphae. The most dramatic shifts in the classification relative to previous works concern the groups that have traditionally been included in the Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota. The Chytridiomycota is retained in a restricted sense, with Blastocladiomycota and Neocallimastigomycota representing segregate phyla of flagellated Fungi. Taxa traditionally placed in Zygomycota are distributed among Glomeromycota and several subphyla incertae sedis, including Mucoromycotina, Entomophthoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina, and Zoopagomycotina. Microsporidia are included in the Fungi, but no further subdivision of the group is proposed. Several genera of 'basal' Fungi of uncertain position are not placed in any higher taxa, including Basidiobolus, Caulochytrium, Olpidium, and Rozella.",
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Hibbett, DS, Binder, M, Bischoff, JF, Blackwell, M, Cannon, PF, Eriksson, OE, Huhndorf, S, James, T, Kirk, PM, Lücking, R, Thorsten Lumbsch, H, Lutzoni, F, Matheny, PB, McLaughlin, DJ, Powell, MJ, Redhead, S, Schoch, CL, Spatafora, JW, Stalpers, JA, Vilgalys, R, Aime, MC, Aptroot, A, Bauer, R, Begerow, D, Benny, GL, Castlebury, LA, Crous, PW, Dai, YC, Gams, W, Geiser, DM, Griffith, GW, Gueidan, C, Hawksworth, DL, Hestmark, G, Hosaka, K, Humber, RA, Hyde, KD, Ironside, JE, Kõljalg, U, Kurtzman, CP, Larsson, KH, Lichtwardt, R, Longcore, J, Miadlikowska, J, Miller, A, Moncalvo, JM, Mozley-Standridge, S, Oberwinkler, F, Parmasto, E, Reeb, V, Rogers, JD, Roux, C, Ryvarden, L, Sampaio, JP, Schüßler, A, Sugiyama, J, Thorn, RG, Tibell, L, Untereiner, WA, Walker, C, Wang, Z, Weir, A, Weiss, M, White, MM, Winka, K, Yao, YJ & Zhang, N 2007, 'A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi', Mycological Research, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 509-547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004

A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. / Hibbett, David S.; Binder, Manfred; Bischoff, Joseph F.; Blackwell, Meredith; Cannon, Paul F.; Eriksson, Ove E.; Huhndorf, Sabine; James, Timothy; Kirk, Paul M.; Lücking, Robert; Thorsten Lumbsch, H.; Lutzoni, François; Matheny, P. Brandon; McLaughlin, David J.; Powell, Martha J.; Redhead, Scott; Schoch, Conrad L.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Stalpers, Joost A.; Vilgalys, Rytas; Aime, M. Catherine; Aptroot, André; Bauer, Robert; Begerow, Dominik; Benny, Gerald L.; Castlebury, Lisa A.; Crous, Pedro W.; Dai, Yu Cheng; Gams, Walter; Geiser, David M.; Griffith, Gareth W.; Gueidan, Cécile; Hawksworth, David L.; Hestmark, Geir; Hosaka, Kentaro; Humber, Richard A.; Hyde, Kevin D.; Ironside, Joseph E.; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Larsson, Karl Henrik; Lichtwardt, Robert; Longcore, Joyce; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Miller, Andrew; Moncalvo, Jean Marc; Mozley-Standridge, Sharon; Oberwinkler, Franz; Parmasto, Erast; Reeb, Valérie; Rogers, Jack D.; Roux, Claude; Ryvarden, Leif; Sampaio, José Paulo; Schüßler, Arthur; Sugiyama, Junta; Thorn, R. Greg; Tibell, Leif; Untereiner, Wendy A.; Walker, Christopher; Wang, Zheng; Weir, Alex; Weiss, Michael; White, Merlin M.; Winka, Katarina; Yao, Yi Jian; Zhang, Ning.

In: Mycological Research, Vol. 111, No. 5, 01.05.2007, p. 509-547.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi

AU - Hibbett, David S.

AU - Binder, Manfred

AU - Bischoff, Joseph F.

AU - Blackwell, Meredith

AU - Cannon, Paul F.

AU - Eriksson, Ove E.

AU - Huhndorf, Sabine

AU - James, Timothy

AU - Kirk, Paul M.

AU - Lücking, Robert

AU - Thorsten Lumbsch, H.

AU - Lutzoni, François

AU - Matheny, P. Brandon

AU - McLaughlin, David J.

AU - Powell, Martha J.

AU - Redhead, Scott

AU - Schoch, Conrad L.

AU - Spatafora, Joseph W.

AU - Stalpers, Joost A.

AU - Vilgalys, Rytas

AU - Aime, M. Catherine

AU - Aptroot, André

AU - Bauer, Robert

AU - Begerow, Dominik

AU - Benny, Gerald L.

AU - Castlebury, Lisa A.

AU - Crous, Pedro W.

AU - Dai, Yu Cheng

AU - Gams, Walter

AU - Geiser, David M.

AU - Griffith, Gareth W.

AU - Gueidan, Cécile

AU - Hawksworth, David L.

AU - Hestmark, Geir

AU - Hosaka, Kentaro

AU - Humber, Richard A.

AU - Hyde, Kevin D.

AU - Ironside, Joseph E.

AU - Kõljalg, Urmas

AU - Kurtzman, Cletus P.

AU - Larsson, Karl Henrik

AU - Lichtwardt, Robert

AU - Longcore, Joyce

AU - Miadlikowska, Jolanta

AU - Miller, Andrew

AU - Moncalvo, Jean Marc

AU - Mozley-Standridge, Sharon

AU - Oberwinkler, Franz

AU - Parmasto, Erast

AU - Reeb, Valérie

AU - Rogers, Jack D.

AU - Roux, Claude

AU - Ryvarden, Leif

AU - Sampaio, José Paulo

AU - Schüßler, Arthur

AU - Sugiyama, Junta

AU - Thorn, R. Greg

AU - Tibell, Leif

AU - Untereiner, Wendy A.

AU - Walker, Christopher

AU - Wang, Zheng

AU - Weir, Alex

AU - Weiss, Michael

AU - White, Merlin M.

AU - Winka, Katarina

AU - Yao, Yi Jian

AU - Zhang, Ning

PY - 2007/5/1

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Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, Blackwell M, Cannon PF, Eriksson OE et al. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycological Research. 2007 May 1;111(5):509-547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004