Ultrafine particle (UFP) emissions and particle number size distributions (PNSD) are critical in the evaluation of air pollution impacts; however, data on UFP number emissions from cookstoves, which are a major source of many pollutants, are limited. In this study, 11 fuel-stove combinations covering a variety of fuels and different stoves are investigated for UFP emissions and PNSD. The combustion of LPG and alcohol (∼1011 particles per useful energy delivered, particles/MJd), and kerosene (∼1013 particles/MJd), produced emissions that were lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude than solid fuels (1014-1015 particles/MJd). Three different PNSD types - unimodal distributions with peaks ∼30-40 nm, unimodal distributions with peaks <30 nm, and bimodal distributions - were observed as the result of both fuel and stove effects. The fractions of particles smaller than 30 nm (F30) varied among the tested systems, ranging from 13% to 88%. The burning of LPG and alcohol had the lowest PM2.5 mass emissions, UFP number emissions, and F30 (13-21% for LPG and 35-41% for alcohol). Emissions of PM2.5 and UFP from kerosene were also low compared with solid fuel burning but had a relatively high F30 value of approximately 73-80%.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry