Objective: This study investigated the co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) features in elementary-aged youth. Method: Latent profile analysis characterized subgroups of youth based on the presence of BPD, ADHD, and ODD features, and subgroups were compared on academic, social, and emotional impairment. Results: Seven subgroups were identified, including subgroups with slight, subclinical, clinical, and severe levels of co-occurring BPD, ADHD, and ODD features, and a subgroup of youth with no elevations in these symptom domains. Subgroups of youth with only clinical elevations in ADHD and only clinical levels in BPD features were also identified. Groups differed on level and type of impairment. Conclusion: Youth with ADHD and ODD represent a high-risk group likely to also show early prodromal clinical elevations in BPD. Future work is needed to examine the longitudinal outcomes of these subgroups to inform prevention and treatment.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Clinical Psychology