The objective of this study was to test if a low-calorie diet plus interval exercise (LCD+INT) improves adiposopathy, an endocrine dysfunction, when compared with an energy-deficit–matched LCD in obese women. Subjects (age: 48.2 ± 2.4 years, body mass index: 37.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2) were randomized to a 13-day LCD (n = 12; mixed meals of ∼1200 kcal/day) or LCD+INT (n = 12; 12 sessions of 60 min/day alternating 3 min at 50% and 90% peak heart rate). Exercise was estimated to expend 350 kcal per oxygen uptake–heart rate regression analysis and individuals were refed calories expended to match energy availability between groups. Absolute (post – pre caloric intake) and relative (total daily and exercise energy expenditure relative to calorie intake) energy deficits were calculated. Fitness (peak oxygen uptake) and body composition (BodPod; Cosmed USA Inc.) were measured and a 120-min, 75g oral glucose tolerance test was performed at pre-and post-intervention to assess adiposopathy (i.e., ratio of high molecular weight–adiponectin to leptin) and estimate insulin sensitivity. LCD and LCD+INT had similar absolute (P = 0.55) and relative (P = 0.76) energy deficits. LCD and LCD+INT had similar reductions in fat mass (both P < 0.001), despite LCD inducing greater weight loss (P = 0.02) than LCD+INT. Both treatments improved adiposopathy (P = 0.003) and peripheral insulin sensitivity (P = 0.02). Absolute energy deficit correlated to improved adiposopathy (r = –0.41, P = 0.05), and absolute and relative energy deficits were associated with increased insulin sensitivity (r = –0.47, P = 0.02; and r = –0.40, P = 0.05, respectively), independent of body composition changes and increased peak oxygen uptake. Taken together, LCD, with or without INT, improves adiposopathy in relation to insulin sensitivity in obese women, suggesting that a short-term energy deficit is key for reducing risk of type 2 diabetes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Physiology (medical)