A meta-analysis of 46 studies identified by the FDA demonstrates that soy protein decreases circulating LDL and total cholesterol concentrations in adults

Sonia Blanco Mejia, Mark Messina, Siying S. Li, Effie Viguiliouk, Laura Chiavaroli, Tauseef A. Khan, Korbua Srichaikul, Arash Mirrahimi, John L. Sievenpiper, Penny Margaret Kris-Etherton, David J.A. Jenkins

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Abstract

Background: Certain plant foods (nuts and soy protein) and food components (viscous fibers and plant sterols) have been permitted by the FDA to carry a heart health claim based on their cholesterol-lowering ability. The FDA is currently considering revoking the heart health claim for soy protein due to a perceived lack of consistent LDL cholesterol reduction in randomized controlled trials. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis of the 46 controlled trials on which the FDA will base its decision to revoke the heart health claim for soy protein. Methods: We included the 46 trials on adult men and women, with baseline circulating LDL cholesterol concentrations ranging from 110 to 201 mg/dL, as identified by the FDA, that studied the effects of soy protein on LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol (TC) compared with non-soy protein. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method with a random effects model and expressed as mean differences with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Results: Of the 46 trials identified by the FDA, 43 provided data for meta-analyses. Of these, 41 provided data for LDL cholesterol, and all 43 provided data for TC. Soy protein at a median dose of 25 g/d during a median follow-up of 6 wk decreased LDL cholesterol by 4.76 mg/dL (95% CI: -6.71, -2.80 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 55%, P < 0.0001) and decreased TC by 6.41 mg/dL (95% CI: -9.30, -3.52 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 74%, P < 0.0001) compared with non-soy protein controls. There was no dose-response effect or evidence of publication bias for either outcome. Inspection of the individual trial estimates indicated most trials (∼75%) showed a reduction in LDL cholesterol (range: -0.77 to -58.60 mg/dL), although only a minority of these were individually statistically significant. Conclusions: Soy protein significantly reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 3-4% in adults. Our data support the advice given to the general public internationally to increase plant protein intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03468127.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)968-981
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume149
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Soybean Proteins
LDL Cholesterol
Meta-Analysis
Cholesterol
Health
Soy Foods
Phytosterols
Publication Bias
Plant Proteins
Edible Plants
Nuts
Proteins
Randomized Controlled Trials

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Blanco Mejia, S., Messina, M., Li, S. S., Viguiliouk, E., Chiavaroli, L., Khan, T. A., ... Jenkins, D. J. A. (2019). A meta-analysis of 46 studies identified by the FDA demonstrates that soy protein decreases circulating LDL and total cholesterol concentrations in adults. Journal of Nutrition, 149(6), 968-981. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz020
Blanco Mejia, Sonia ; Messina, Mark ; Li, Siying S. ; Viguiliouk, Effie ; Chiavaroli, Laura ; Khan, Tauseef A. ; Srichaikul, Korbua ; Mirrahimi, Arash ; Sievenpiper, John L. ; Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret ; Jenkins, David J.A. / A meta-analysis of 46 studies identified by the FDA demonstrates that soy protein decreases circulating LDL and total cholesterol concentrations in adults. In: Journal of Nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 149, No. 6. pp. 968-981.
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title = "A meta-analysis of 46 studies identified by the FDA demonstrates that soy protein decreases circulating LDL and total cholesterol concentrations in adults",
abstract = "Background: Certain plant foods (nuts and soy protein) and food components (viscous fibers and plant sterols) have been permitted by the FDA to carry a heart health claim based on their cholesterol-lowering ability. The FDA is currently considering revoking the heart health claim for soy protein due to a perceived lack of consistent LDL cholesterol reduction in randomized controlled trials. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis of the 46 controlled trials on which the FDA will base its decision to revoke the heart health claim for soy protein. Methods: We included the 46 trials on adult men and women, with baseline circulating LDL cholesterol concentrations ranging from 110 to 201 mg/dL, as identified by the FDA, that studied the effects of soy protein on LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol (TC) compared with non-soy protein. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method with a random effects model and expressed as mean differences with 95{\%} CI. Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Results: Of the 46 trials identified by the FDA, 43 provided data for meta-analyses. Of these, 41 provided data for LDL cholesterol, and all 43 provided data for TC. Soy protein at a median dose of 25 g/d during a median follow-up of 6 wk decreased LDL cholesterol by 4.76 mg/dL (95{\%} CI: -6.71, -2.80 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 55{\%}, P < 0.0001) and decreased TC by 6.41 mg/dL (95{\%} CI: -9.30, -3.52 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 74{\%}, P < 0.0001) compared with non-soy protein controls. There was no dose-response effect or evidence of publication bias for either outcome. Inspection of the individual trial estimates indicated most trials (∼75{\%}) showed a reduction in LDL cholesterol (range: -0.77 to -58.60 mg/dL), although only a minority of these were individually statistically significant. Conclusions: Soy protein significantly reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 3-4{\%} in adults. Our data support the advice given to the general public internationally to increase plant protein intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03468127.",
author = "{Blanco Mejia}, Sonia and Mark Messina and Li, {Siying S.} and Effie Viguiliouk and Laura Chiavaroli and Khan, {Tauseef A.} and Korbua Srichaikul and Arash Mirrahimi and Sievenpiper, {John L.} and Kris-Etherton, {Penny Margaret} and Jenkins, {David J.A.}",
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Blanco Mejia, S, Messina, M, Li, SS, Viguiliouk, E, Chiavaroli, L, Khan, TA, Srichaikul, K, Mirrahimi, A, Sievenpiper, JL, Kris-Etherton, PM & Jenkins, DJA 2019, 'A meta-analysis of 46 studies identified by the FDA demonstrates that soy protein decreases circulating LDL and total cholesterol concentrations in adults', Journal of Nutrition, vol. 149, no. 6, pp. 968-981. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz020

A meta-analysis of 46 studies identified by the FDA demonstrates that soy protein decreases circulating LDL and total cholesterol concentrations in adults. / Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Messina, Mark; Li, Siying S.; Viguiliouk, Effie; Chiavaroli, Laura; Khan, Tauseef A.; Srichaikul, Korbua; Mirrahimi, Arash; Sievenpiper, John L.; Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret; Jenkins, David J.A.

In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 149, No. 6, 01.01.2019, p. 968-981.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A meta-analysis of 46 studies identified by the FDA demonstrates that soy protein decreases circulating LDL and total cholesterol concentrations in adults

AU - Blanco Mejia, Sonia

AU - Messina, Mark

AU - Li, Siying S.

AU - Viguiliouk, Effie

AU - Chiavaroli, Laura

AU - Khan, Tauseef A.

AU - Srichaikul, Korbua

AU - Mirrahimi, Arash

AU - Sievenpiper, John L.

AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret

AU - Jenkins, David J.A.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: Certain plant foods (nuts and soy protein) and food components (viscous fibers and plant sterols) have been permitted by the FDA to carry a heart health claim based on their cholesterol-lowering ability. The FDA is currently considering revoking the heart health claim for soy protein due to a perceived lack of consistent LDL cholesterol reduction in randomized controlled trials. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis of the 46 controlled trials on which the FDA will base its decision to revoke the heart health claim for soy protein. Methods: We included the 46 trials on adult men and women, with baseline circulating LDL cholesterol concentrations ranging from 110 to 201 mg/dL, as identified by the FDA, that studied the effects of soy protein on LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol (TC) compared with non-soy protein. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method with a random effects model and expressed as mean differences with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Results: Of the 46 trials identified by the FDA, 43 provided data for meta-analyses. Of these, 41 provided data for LDL cholesterol, and all 43 provided data for TC. Soy protein at a median dose of 25 g/d during a median follow-up of 6 wk decreased LDL cholesterol by 4.76 mg/dL (95% CI: -6.71, -2.80 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 55%, P < 0.0001) and decreased TC by 6.41 mg/dL (95% CI: -9.30, -3.52 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 74%, P < 0.0001) compared with non-soy protein controls. There was no dose-response effect or evidence of publication bias for either outcome. Inspection of the individual trial estimates indicated most trials (∼75%) showed a reduction in LDL cholesterol (range: -0.77 to -58.60 mg/dL), although only a minority of these were individually statistically significant. Conclusions: Soy protein significantly reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 3-4% in adults. Our data support the advice given to the general public internationally to increase plant protein intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03468127.

AB - Background: Certain plant foods (nuts and soy protein) and food components (viscous fibers and plant sterols) have been permitted by the FDA to carry a heart health claim based on their cholesterol-lowering ability. The FDA is currently considering revoking the heart health claim for soy protein due to a perceived lack of consistent LDL cholesterol reduction in randomized controlled trials. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis of the 46 controlled trials on which the FDA will base its decision to revoke the heart health claim for soy protein. Methods: We included the 46 trials on adult men and women, with baseline circulating LDL cholesterol concentrations ranging from 110 to 201 mg/dL, as identified by the FDA, that studied the effects of soy protein on LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol (TC) compared with non-soy protein. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method with a random effects model and expressed as mean differences with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Results: Of the 46 trials identified by the FDA, 43 provided data for meta-analyses. Of these, 41 provided data for LDL cholesterol, and all 43 provided data for TC. Soy protein at a median dose of 25 g/d during a median follow-up of 6 wk decreased LDL cholesterol by 4.76 mg/dL (95% CI: -6.71, -2.80 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 55%, P < 0.0001) and decreased TC by 6.41 mg/dL (95% CI: -9.30, -3.52 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 74%, P < 0.0001) compared with non-soy protein controls. There was no dose-response effect or evidence of publication bias for either outcome. Inspection of the individual trial estimates indicated most trials (∼75%) showed a reduction in LDL cholesterol (range: -0.77 to -58.60 mg/dL), although only a minority of these were individually statistically significant. Conclusions: Soy protein significantly reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 3-4% in adults. Our data support the advice given to the general public internationally to increase plant protein intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03468127.

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