A low-Reynolds number k-ε model for simulation of turbulent flow with high free stream turbulence is developed which can successfully predict turbulent kinetic energy profiles, skin friction coefficient, and Stanton number under high free stream turbulence. Modifications incorporating the effects of free stream velocity and length scale are applied. These include an additional term in turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, as well as reformulation of the coefficient in turbulent viscosity equation. The present model is implemented in OpenFOAM CFD code and applied together with other well-known versions of low-Reynolds number k-ε model in flow and heat transfer calculations in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer. Three different test cases based on the initial values of the free stream turbulence intensity (1%, 6.53%, and 25.7%) are considered and models predictions are compared with available experimental data. Results indicate that almost all low-Reynolds number k-ε models, including the present model, give reasonably good results for low free stream turbulence intensity case (1%). However, deviations between current k-ε models predictions and data become larger as turbulence intensity increases. Turbulent kinetic energy levels obtained from these models for very high turbulence intensity (25.7%) show as much as 100% underprediction while skin friction coefficient and Stanton number are overpredicted by more than 70%. Applying the present modifications, predictions of skin friction coefficient, and Stanton number improve considerably (only 15% and 8% deviations in average for very high free stream turbulence intensity). Turbulent kinetic energy levels are vastly improved within the boundary layer as well. It seems like the new developed model can capture the physics of the high free stream turbulence effects.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Mechanical Engineering