The current study developed a simultaneous model of injury severity outcomes of all occupants in multi-vehicle crashes including all the drivers and the passengers of all vehicles involved in a crash. Specifically, a Modified Rank Ordered Logit (MROL) methodology that can predict the relative order of occupant injury severity as well as the actual injury severity was developed. The final model captures the effects of several key occupant, vehicle, and accident level variables on four possible levels of injury severity. The results indicate the presence of accident-specific unobserved factors that influence the severity outcomes of all people involved in the crash as well as unobserved heterogeneity in the effect of key covariates including occupant's gender and speed limit. The performance of the MROL model was compared with the traditional mixed multinomial logit (MMNL) model that is the most commonly used model for injury severity analysis. Overall, the results demonstrate superior predictive ability of the MROL model in comparison to the MMNL model. The traditional MMNL model performed satisfactory in terms of replicating the simple shares of different injury severity levels across all occupants. However, the performance of the MMNL model dropped significantly when the observed and predicted shares were compared for combinations of injury severity levels among crashes involving multiple occupants. Lastly, elasticity effects were computed to demonstrate considerably different policy implications of the MROL and MMNL models.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Safety Research