This paper presents an autonomous multi-input (multi-beam) reconfigurable power-management chip for optimal energy harvesting from weak multi-axial human motion using a multi-beam piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH). The proposed chip adaptively operates in either voltage-mode or synchronous-electrical-charge-extraction-mode (VM-SECE) to improve overall efficiency, extract maximum energy regardless of the PEH beams' impedance/voltage/frequency variations, and protect the chip against large inputs, eliminating the need for high-voltage processes. It can simultaneously harvest energy from up to 6 beams using only one shared off-chip inductor. It uses an active negative voltage converter to extend the input-voltage range to as low as 35 mV. In addition, an active voltage doubler with a small footprint is implemented for faster cold start. A prototype VM-SECE chip was fabricated in a 0.35-μm 2P4M standard CMOS process occupying 1.9 mm2 active area. To fully characterize the chip performance, it was tested with both a commercial single-beam PEH and a custom-made PEH with five mechanically plucked thin-film beams. With the commercial PEH, compared to an on-chip full-wave active rectifier (FAR) with 95.6% efficiency, the VM-SECE chip harvested 3.28x more power for shock inputs at 1 Hz frequency and 4.39 g acceleration. With the custom 5-beam PEH for a pseudo-walking condition, compared to the on-chip FAR, the VM-SECE chip harvested 1.59x and 2.38x more power for 1-and 5-beam operations, respectively.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2019|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering