A solute diffusion model, aimed at predicting microstructure formation in metal castings, is proposed for dendritic solidification of alloys. The model accounts for the different length scales existing in a dendritic structure. This is accomplished by utilizing a multiphase approach, in which not only the various physical phases but also phases associated with different length scales are considered separately. The macroscopic conservation equations are derived for each phase using the volume averaging technique, with constitutive relations developed for the interfacial transfer terms. It is shown that the multiphase model can rigorously incorporate the growth of dendrite tips and coarsening of dendrite arms. In addition, the distinction of different length scales enables the inclusion of realistic descriptions of the dendrite topology and relations to key metallurgical parameters. Another novel aspect of the model is that a single set of conservation equations for solute diffusion is developed for both equiaxed and columnar dendritic solidification. Finally, illustrative calculations for equiaxed, columnar, and mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification are carried out to provide quantitative comparisons with previous studies, and a variety of fundamental phenomena such as recalescence, dendrite tip undercooling, and columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) are predicted.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Metals and Alloys