A New Microbial Pathway for Organophosphonate Degradation Catalyzed by Two Previously Misannotated Non-Heme-Iron Oxygenases

Lauren J. Rajakovich, Maria Eirini Pandelia, Andrew J. Mitchell, Wei Chen Chang, Bo Zhang, Amie Kathleen Boal, Carsten Krebs, Joseph M. Bollinger, Jr.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The assignment of biochemical functions to hypothetical proteins is challenged by functional diversification within many protein structural superfamilies. This diversification, which is particularly common for metalloenzymes, renders functional annotations that are founded solely on sequence and domain similarities unreliable and often erroneous. Definitive biochemical characterization to delineate functional subgroups within these superfamilies will aid in improving bioinformatic approaches for functional annotation. We describe here the structural and functional characterization of two non-heme-iron oxygenases, TmpA and TmpB, which are encoded by a genomically clustered pair of genes found in more than 350 species of bacteria. TmpA and TmpB are functional homologues of a pair of enzymes (PhnY and PhnZ) that degrade 2-aminoethylphosphonate but instead act on its naturally occurring, quaternary ammonium analogue, 2-(trimethylammonio)ethylphosphonate (TMAEP). TmpA, an iron(II)- and 2-(oxo)glutarate-dependent oxygenase misannotated as a γ-butyrobetaine (γbb) hydroxylase, shows no activity toward γbb but efficiently hydroxylates TMAEP. The product, (R)-1-hydroxy-2-(trimethylammonio)ethylphosphonate [(R)-OH-TMAEP], then serves as the substrate for the second enzyme, TmpB. By contrast to its purported phosphohydrolytic activity, TmpB is an HD-domain oxygenase that uses a mixed-valent diiron cofactor to enact oxidative cleavage of the C-P bond of its substrate, yielding glycine betaine and phosphate. The high specificities of TmpA and TmpB for their N-trimethylated substrates suggest that they have evolved specifically to degrade TMAEP, which was not previously known to be subject to microbial catabolism. This study thus adds to the growing list of known pathways through which microbes break down organophosphonates to harvest phosphorus, carbon, and nitrogen in nutrient-limited niches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1627-1647
Number of pages21
JournalBiochemistry
Volume58
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 26 2019

Fingerprint

Organophosphonates
Oxygenases
Iron
Degradation
gamma-Butyrobetaine Dioxygenase
Substrates
Glutarates
Betaine
Enzymes
Bioinformatics
Computational Biology
Ammonium Compounds
Glycine
Phosphorus
Nutrients
Bacteria
Proteins
Nitrogen
Carbon
Genes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Rajakovich, Lauren J. ; Pandelia, Maria Eirini ; Mitchell, Andrew J. ; Chang, Wei Chen ; Zhang, Bo ; Boal, Amie Kathleen ; Krebs, Carsten ; Bollinger, Jr., Joseph M. / A New Microbial Pathway for Organophosphonate Degradation Catalyzed by Two Previously Misannotated Non-Heme-Iron Oxygenases. In: Biochemistry. 2019 ; Vol. 58, No. 12. pp. 1627-1647.
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abstract = "The assignment of biochemical functions to hypothetical proteins is challenged by functional diversification within many protein structural superfamilies. This diversification, which is particularly common for metalloenzymes, renders functional annotations that are founded solely on sequence and domain similarities unreliable and often erroneous. Definitive biochemical characterization to delineate functional subgroups within these superfamilies will aid in improving bioinformatic approaches for functional annotation. We describe here the structural and functional characterization of two non-heme-iron oxygenases, TmpA and TmpB, which are encoded by a genomically clustered pair of genes found in more than 350 species of bacteria. TmpA and TmpB are functional homologues of a pair of enzymes (PhnY and PhnZ) that degrade 2-aminoethylphosphonate but instead act on its naturally occurring, quaternary ammonium analogue, 2-(trimethylammonio)ethylphosphonate (TMAEP). TmpA, an iron(II)- and 2-(oxo)glutarate-dependent oxygenase misannotated as a γ-butyrobetaine (γbb) hydroxylase, shows no activity toward γbb but efficiently hydroxylates TMAEP. The product, (R)-1-hydroxy-2-(trimethylammonio)ethylphosphonate [(R)-OH-TMAEP], then serves as the substrate for the second enzyme, TmpB. By contrast to its purported phosphohydrolytic activity, TmpB is an HD-domain oxygenase that uses a mixed-valent diiron cofactor to enact oxidative cleavage of the C-P bond of its substrate, yielding glycine betaine and phosphate. The high specificities of TmpA and TmpB for their N-trimethylated substrates suggest that they have evolved specifically to degrade TMAEP, which was not previously known to be subject to microbial catabolism. This study thus adds to the growing list of known pathways through which microbes break down organophosphonates to harvest phosphorus, carbon, and nitrogen in nutrient-limited niches.",
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A New Microbial Pathway for Organophosphonate Degradation Catalyzed by Two Previously Misannotated Non-Heme-Iron Oxygenases. / Rajakovich, Lauren J.; Pandelia, Maria Eirini; Mitchell, Andrew J.; Chang, Wei Chen; Zhang, Bo; Boal, Amie Kathleen; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, Jr., Joseph M.

In: Biochemistry, Vol. 58, No. 12, 26.03.2019, p. 1627-1647.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - A New Microbial Pathway for Organophosphonate Degradation Catalyzed by Two Previously Misannotated Non-Heme-Iron Oxygenases

AU - Rajakovich, Lauren J.

AU - Pandelia, Maria Eirini

AU - Mitchell, Andrew J.

AU - Chang, Wei Chen

AU - Zhang, Bo

AU - Boal, Amie Kathleen

AU - Krebs, Carsten

AU - Bollinger, Jr., Joseph M.

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N2 - The assignment of biochemical functions to hypothetical proteins is challenged by functional diversification within many protein structural superfamilies. This diversification, which is particularly common for metalloenzymes, renders functional annotations that are founded solely on sequence and domain similarities unreliable and often erroneous. Definitive biochemical characterization to delineate functional subgroups within these superfamilies will aid in improving bioinformatic approaches for functional annotation. We describe here the structural and functional characterization of two non-heme-iron oxygenases, TmpA and TmpB, which are encoded by a genomically clustered pair of genes found in more than 350 species of bacteria. TmpA and TmpB are functional homologues of a pair of enzymes (PhnY and PhnZ) that degrade 2-aminoethylphosphonate but instead act on its naturally occurring, quaternary ammonium analogue, 2-(trimethylammonio)ethylphosphonate (TMAEP). TmpA, an iron(II)- and 2-(oxo)glutarate-dependent oxygenase misannotated as a γ-butyrobetaine (γbb) hydroxylase, shows no activity toward γbb but efficiently hydroxylates TMAEP. The product, (R)-1-hydroxy-2-(trimethylammonio)ethylphosphonate [(R)-OH-TMAEP], then serves as the substrate for the second enzyme, TmpB. By contrast to its purported phosphohydrolytic activity, TmpB is an HD-domain oxygenase that uses a mixed-valent diiron cofactor to enact oxidative cleavage of the C-P bond of its substrate, yielding glycine betaine and phosphate. The high specificities of TmpA and TmpB for their N-trimethylated substrates suggest that they have evolved specifically to degrade TMAEP, which was not previously known to be subject to microbial catabolism. This study thus adds to the growing list of known pathways through which microbes break down organophosphonates to harvest phosphorus, carbon, and nitrogen in nutrient-limited niches.

AB - The assignment of biochemical functions to hypothetical proteins is challenged by functional diversification within many protein structural superfamilies. This diversification, which is particularly common for metalloenzymes, renders functional annotations that are founded solely on sequence and domain similarities unreliable and often erroneous. Definitive biochemical characterization to delineate functional subgroups within these superfamilies will aid in improving bioinformatic approaches for functional annotation. We describe here the structural and functional characterization of two non-heme-iron oxygenases, TmpA and TmpB, which are encoded by a genomically clustered pair of genes found in more than 350 species of bacteria. TmpA and TmpB are functional homologues of a pair of enzymes (PhnY and PhnZ) that degrade 2-aminoethylphosphonate but instead act on its naturally occurring, quaternary ammonium analogue, 2-(trimethylammonio)ethylphosphonate (TMAEP). TmpA, an iron(II)- and 2-(oxo)glutarate-dependent oxygenase misannotated as a γ-butyrobetaine (γbb) hydroxylase, shows no activity toward γbb but efficiently hydroxylates TMAEP. The product, (R)-1-hydroxy-2-(trimethylammonio)ethylphosphonate [(R)-OH-TMAEP], then serves as the substrate for the second enzyme, TmpB. By contrast to its purported phosphohydrolytic activity, TmpB is an HD-domain oxygenase that uses a mixed-valent diiron cofactor to enact oxidative cleavage of the C-P bond of its substrate, yielding glycine betaine and phosphate. The high specificities of TmpA and TmpB for their N-trimethylated substrates suggest that they have evolved specifically to degrade TMAEP, which was not previously known to be subject to microbial catabolism. This study thus adds to the growing list of known pathways through which microbes break down organophosphonates to harvest phosphorus, carbon, and nitrogen in nutrient-limited niches.

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