A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies

Stacy H. Teng, Jane R. Rigby, Daniel Stern, Andrew Ptak, D. M. Alexander, Franz E. Bauer, Stephen E. Boggs, William Nielsen Brandt, Finn E. Christensen, Andrea Comastri, William W. Craig, Duncan Farrah, Poshak Gandhi, Charles J. Hailey, Fiona A. Harrison, Ryan C. Hickox, Michael Koss, Bin Luo, Ezequiel Treister, William W. Zhang

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Abstract

We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously possible. Six of the nine sources observed were detected sufficiently well by NuSTAR to model in detail their broadband X-ray spectra, and recover the levels of obscuration and intrinsic X-ray luminosities. Only one source (IRAS 13120-5453) has a spectrum consistent with a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), but we cannot rule out that a second source (Arp 220) harbors an extremely highly obscured AGN as well. Variability in column density (reduction by a factor of a few compared to older observations) is seen in IRAS 05189-2524 and Mrk 273, altering the classification of these borderline sources from Compton-thick to Compton-thin. The ULIRGs in our sample have surprisingly low observed fluxes in high-energy (>10 keV) X-rays, especially compared to their bolometric luminosities. They have lower ratios of unabsorbed 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity, and unabsorbed 2-10 keV to mid-IR [O iv] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number56
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume814
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 20 2015

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spectroscopic telescopes
Infrared Astronomy Satellite
galaxies
luminosity
x rays
active galactic nuclei
harbors
occultation
XMM-Newton telescope
newton
energy
near infrared
harbor
outflow
broadband
wavelength
sensitivity
wavelengths
modeling

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Teng, S. H., Rigby, J. R., Stern, D., Ptak, A., Alexander, D. M., Bauer, F. E., ... Zhang, W. W. (2015). A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies. Astrophysical Journal, 814(1), [56]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/814/1/56
Teng, Stacy H. ; Rigby, Jane R. ; Stern, Daniel ; Ptak, Andrew ; Alexander, D. M. ; Bauer, Franz E. ; Boggs, Stephen E. ; Brandt, William Nielsen ; Christensen, Finn E. ; Comastri, Andrea ; Craig, William W. ; Farrah, Duncan ; Gandhi, Poshak ; Hailey, Charles J. ; Harrison, Fiona A. ; Hickox, Ryan C. ; Koss, Michael ; Luo, Bin ; Treister, Ezequiel ; Zhang, William W. / A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 814, No. 1.
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Teng, SH, Rigby, JR, Stern, D, Ptak, A, Alexander, DM, Bauer, FE, Boggs, SE, Brandt, WN, Christensen, FE, Comastri, A, Craig, WW, Farrah, D, Gandhi, P, Hailey, CJ, Harrison, FA, Hickox, RC, Koss, M, Luo, B, Treister, E & Zhang, WW 2015, 'A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 814, no. 1, 56. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/814/1/56

A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies. / Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Stern, Daniel; Ptak, Andrew; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Stephen E.; Brandt, William Nielsen; Christensen, Finn E.; Comastri, Andrea; Craig, William W.; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Koss, Michael; Luo, Bin; Treister, Ezequiel; Zhang, William W.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 814, No. 1, 56, 20.11.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies

AU - Teng, Stacy H.

AU - Rigby, Jane R.

AU - Stern, Daniel

AU - Ptak, Andrew

AU - Alexander, D. M.

AU - Bauer, Franz E.

AU - Boggs, Stephen E.

AU - Brandt, William Nielsen

AU - Christensen, Finn E.

AU - Comastri, Andrea

AU - Craig, William W.

AU - Farrah, Duncan

AU - Gandhi, Poshak

AU - Hailey, Charles J.

AU - Harrison, Fiona A.

AU - Hickox, Ryan C.

AU - Koss, Michael

AU - Luo, Bin

AU - Treister, Ezequiel

AU - Zhang, William W.

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N2 - We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously possible. Six of the nine sources observed were detected sufficiently well by NuSTAR to model in detail their broadband X-ray spectra, and recover the levels of obscuration and intrinsic X-ray luminosities. Only one source (IRAS 13120-5453) has a spectrum consistent with a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), but we cannot rule out that a second source (Arp 220) harbors an extremely highly obscured AGN as well. Variability in column density (reduction by a factor of a few compared to older observations) is seen in IRAS 05189-2524 and Mrk 273, altering the classification of these borderline sources from Compton-thick to Compton-thin. The ULIRGs in our sample have surprisingly low observed fluxes in high-energy (>10 keV) X-rays, especially compared to their bolometric luminosities. They have lower ratios of unabsorbed 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity, and unabsorbed 2-10 keV to mid-IR [O iv] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths.

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Teng SH, Rigby JR, Stern D, Ptak A, Alexander DM, Bauer FE et al. A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies. Astrophysical Journal. 2015 Nov 20;814(1). 56. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/814/1/56