The soy compound genistein has been observed preclinically to inhibit bladder cancer growth with one potential mechanism being the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation (p-EGFR). A phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigated whether daily, oral genistein (300 or 600 mg/d as the purified soy extract G-2535) for 14 to 21 days before surgery alters molecular pathways in bladder epithelial tissue in 59 subjects diagnosed with urothelial bladder cancer (median age, 71 years). G-2535 treatment was well tolerated; observed toxicities were primarily mild to moderate gastrointestinal or metabolic and usually not attributed to study drug. Genistein was detected in plasma and urine of subjects receiving G-2535 at concentrations greater than placebo subjects' but were not dose-dependent. Reduction in bladder cancer tissue p-EGFR staining between the placebo arm and the combined genistein arms was significant at the protocol-specified significance level of 0.10 (P = 0.07). This difference was most prominent when comparing the 300-mg group with placebo (P = 0.015), but there was no significant reduction in p-EGFR staining between the 600-mg group and placebo. No difference in normal bladder epithelium p-EGFR staining was observed between treatment groups. No significant differences in tumor tissue staining between treatment groups were observed for COX-2, Ki-67, activated caspase-3, Akt, p-Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or p-MAPK. No significant differences in urinary survivin or BLCA-4 levels between treatment groups were observed. Genistein displayed a possible bimodal effect (more effective at the lower dose) on bladder cancer tissue EGFR phosphorylation that should be evaluated further, possibly in combination with other agents.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research