A polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF and bacterial vaginosis: Preliminary evidence of gene-environment interaction in the etiology of spontaneous preterm birth

George A. Macones, Samuel Parry, Mohammed Elkousy, Bonnie Clothier, Serdar Ural, Jerome F. Strauss

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Objective The rarer of 2 alleles of a polymorphism in the promoter of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene (TNF) has been associated with spontaneous preterm birth following preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes in some populations. The aim of this study was to assess if the presence of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis amplifies the risk of spontaneous preterm birth in those with a "susceptible" TNF genotype. Study design A case-control study was performed at our institution. Cases (n=125) were defined as women who delivered before 37 weeks as a result of ruptured membranes or preterm labor, while control subjects (n=250) were defined as women who delivered after 37 weeks. DNA was collected from maternal blood and analyzed for the TNF genotype. Information on symptomatic bacterial vaginosis and other risk factors for preterm birth was obtained by review of the antenatal record. Multiple logistic regression was also used to test the interaction between bacterial vaginosis, the TNF genotype, and preterm birth. Results Maternal carriers of the rarer allele (TNF-2) were at a significantly increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth [odds ratio (OR) 2.7, 95% CI 1.7-4.5]. The association between TNF-2 and preterm birth was modified by the presence of bacterial vaginosis, such that those with a "susceptible" genotype and bacterial vaginosis had increased odds of preterm birth compared with those who did not (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.9-21.0). Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that an interaction between genetic susceptibilities (ie, TNF-2 carriers) and environmental factors (ie, bacterial vaginosis) is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1504-1508
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 2004


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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