A prebiotic, Celmanax, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro

Danica Baines, Stephanie Erb, Ross Lowe, Kelly Turkington, Emil Sabau, Gretchen Anna Kuldau, Jean Juba, Luke Masson, Alberto Mazza, Ray Roberts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most common serovar of enterohemorrhagic E. coli associated with serious human disease outbreaks. Cattle are the main reservoir with E. coli O157:H7 inducing hemorrhagic enteritis in persistent shedding beef cattle, however little is known about how this pathogen affects cattle health. Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS) has unclear etiology but the pathology is similar to that described for E. coli O157:H7 challenged beef cattle suggestive that E. coli O157:H7 could be involved. There are no effective treatments for JHS however new approaches to managing pathogen issues in livestock using prebiotics and probiotics are gaining support. The first objective of the current study was to characterize pathogen colonization in hemorrhaged jejunum of dairy cattle during natural JHS outbreaks. The second objective was to confirm the association of mycotoxigenic fungi in feeds with the development of JHS and also to identify the presence of potential mycotoxins. The third objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic, Celmanax, or probiotic, Dairyman's Choice paste, on the cytotoxicity associated with feed extracts in vitro. The fourth objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic or a probiotic on E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a bovine colonic cell line in vitro. The final objective was to determine if prebiotic and probiotic feed additives could modify the symptoms that preceded JHS losses and the development of new JHS cases. Findings. Dairy cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum, F. poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Aspergillusflavus, Penicillium roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. paneum and P. citrinum. Mixtures of Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STEC) colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood clot blocking the jejunum. Mycotoxin analysis of the corn crop confirmed the presence of fumonisin, NIV, ZEAR, DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NEO, DAS, HT-2 and T-2. Feed extracts were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% Celmanax removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice paste on feed-extract activity in vitro. Fumonisin, T-2, ZEAR and DON were toxic to bovine cells and 0.1% Celmanax removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. Celmanax also directly decreased E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a colonic cell line in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro. The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease. Conclusion: The current study confirmed an association between mycotoxigenic fungi in the feed and the development of JHS in cattle. This association was further expanded to include mycotoxins in the feed and mixtures of STECs colonizing the severely hemorrhaged tissues. Future studies should examine the extent of involvement of the different STEC in the infection process. The prebiotic, Celmanax, acted as an anti-adhesive for STEC colonization and a mycotoxin binder in vitro. Future studies should determine the extent of involvement of the prebiotic in altering disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110
JournalBMC Research Notes
Volume4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 11 2011

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Prebiotics
Escherichia coli O157
Cytotoxicity
Escherichia coli
Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli
Hemorrhage
Probiotics
Mycotoxins
Pathogens
Shiga Toxin
Ointments
Fungi
Fumonisins
amsonic acid
Beef
Poisons
Dairies
Jejunum
Disease Outbreaks
In Vitro Techniques

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Baines, Danica ; Erb, Stephanie ; Lowe, Ross ; Turkington, Kelly ; Sabau, Emil ; Kuldau, Gretchen Anna ; Juba, Jean ; Masson, Luke ; Mazza, Alberto ; Roberts, Ray. / A prebiotic, Celmanax, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro. In: BMC Research Notes. 2011 ; Vol. 4.
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title = "A prebiotic, Celmanax, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro",
abstract = "Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most common serovar of enterohemorrhagic E. coli associated with serious human disease outbreaks. Cattle are the main reservoir with E. coli O157:H7 inducing hemorrhagic enteritis in persistent shedding beef cattle, however little is known about how this pathogen affects cattle health. Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS) has unclear etiology but the pathology is similar to that described for E. coli O157:H7 challenged beef cattle suggestive that E. coli O157:H7 could be involved. There are no effective treatments for JHS however new approaches to managing pathogen issues in livestock using prebiotics and probiotics are gaining support. The first objective of the current study was to characterize pathogen colonization in hemorrhaged jejunum of dairy cattle during natural JHS outbreaks. The second objective was to confirm the association of mycotoxigenic fungi in feeds with the development of JHS and also to identify the presence of potential mycotoxins. The third objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic, Celmanax, or probiotic, Dairyman's Choice paste, on the cytotoxicity associated with feed extracts in vitro. The fourth objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic or a probiotic on E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a bovine colonic cell line in vitro. The final objective was to determine if prebiotic and probiotic feed additives could modify the symptoms that preceded JHS losses and the development of new JHS cases. Findings. Dairy cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum, F. poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Aspergillusflavus, Penicillium roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. paneum and P. citrinum. Mixtures of Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STEC) colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood clot blocking the jejunum. Mycotoxin analysis of the corn crop confirmed the presence of fumonisin, NIV, ZEAR, DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NEO, DAS, HT-2 and T-2. Feed extracts were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1{\%} Celmanax removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice paste on feed-extract activity in vitro. Fumonisin, T-2, ZEAR and DON were toxic to bovine cells and 0.1{\%} Celmanax removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. Celmanax also directly decreased E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a colonic cell line in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro. The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease. Conclusion: The current study confirmed an association between mycotoxigenic fungi in the feed and the development of JHS in cattle. This association was further expanded to include mycotoxins in the feed and mixtures of STECs colonizing the severely hemorrhaged tissues. Future studies should examine the extent of involvement of the different STEC in the infection process. The prebiotic, Celmanax, acted as an anti-adhesive for STEC colonization and a mycotoxin binder in vitro. Future studies should determine the extent of involvement of the prebiotic in altering disease.",
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A prebiotic, Celmanax, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro. / Baines, Danica; Erb, Stephanie; Lowe, Ross; Turkington, Kelly; Sabau, Emil; Kuldau, Gretchen Anna; Juba, Jean; Masson, Luke; Mazza, Alberto; Roberts, Ray.

In: BMC Research Notes, Vol. 4, 110, 11.04.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A prebiotic, Celmanax, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro

AU - Baines, Danica

AU - Erb, Stephanie

AU - Lowe, Ross

AU - Turkington, Kelly

AU - Sabau, Emil

AU - Kuldau, Gretchen Anna

AU - Juba, Jean

AU - Masson, Luke

AU - Mazza, Alberto

AU - Roberts, Ray

PY - 2011/4/11

Y1 - 2011/4/11

N2 - Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most common serovar of enterohemorrhagic E. coli associated with serious human disease outbreaks. Cattle are the main reservoir with E. coli O157:H7 inducing hemorrhagic enteritis in persistent shedding beef cattle, however little is known about how this pathogen affects cattle health. Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS) has unclear etiology but the pathology is similar to that described for E. coli O157:H7 challenged beef cattle suggestive that E. coli O157:H7 could be involved. There are no effective treatments for JHS however new approaches to managing pathogen issues in livestock using prebiotics and probiotics are gaining support. The first objective of the current study was to characterize pathogen colonization in hemorrhaged jejunum of dairy cattle during natural JHS outbreaks. The second objective was to confirm the association of mycotoxigenic fungi in feeds with the development of JHS and also to identify the presence of potential mycotoxins. The third objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic, Celmanax, or probiotic, Dairyman's Choice paste, on the cytotoxicity associated with feed extracts in vitro. The fourth objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic or a probiotic on E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a bovine colonic cell line in vitro. The final objective was to determine if prebiotic and probiotic feed additives could modify the symptoms that preceded JHS losses and the development of new JHS cases. Findings. Dairy cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum, F. poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Aspergillusflavus, Penicillium roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. paneum and P. citrinum. Mixtures of Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STEC) colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood clot blocking the jejunum. Mycotoxin analysis of the corn crop confirmed the presence of fumonisin, NIV, ZEAR, DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NEO, DAS, HT-2 and T-2. Feed extracts were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% Celmanax removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice paste on feed-extract activity in vitro. Fumonisin, T-2, ZEAR and DON were toxic to bovine cells and 0.1% Celmanax removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. Celmanax also directly decreased E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a colonic cell line in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro. The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease. Conclusion: The current study confirmed an association between mycotoxigenic fungi in the feed and the development of JHS in cattle. This association was further expanded to include mycotoxins in the feed and mixtures of STECs colonizing the severely hemorrhaged tissues. Future studies should examine the extent of involvement of the different STEC in the infection process. The prebiotic, Celmanax, acted as an anti-adhesive for STEC colonization and a mycotoxin binder in vitro. Future studies should determine the extent of involvement of the prebiotic in altering disease.

AB - Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most common serovar of enterohemorrhagic E. coli associated with serious human disease outbreaks. Cattle are the main reservoir with E. coli O157:H7 inducing hemorrhagic enteritis in persistent shedding beef cattle, however little is known about how this pathogen affects cattle health. Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS) has unclear etiology but the pathology is similar to that described for E. coli O157:H7 challenged beef cattle suggestive that E. coli O157:H7 could be involved. There are no effective treatments for JHS however new approaches to managing pathogen issues in livestock using prebiotics and probiotics are gaining support. The first objective of the current study was to characterize pathogen colonization in hemorrhaged jejunum of dairy cattle during natural JHS outbreaks. The second objective was to confirm the association of mycotoxigenic fungi in feeds with the development of JHS and also to identify the presence of potential mycotoxins. The third objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic, Celmanax, or probiotic, Dairyman's Choice paste, on the cytotoxicity associated with feed extracts in vitro. The fourth objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic or a probiotic on E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a bovine colonic cell line in vitro. The final objective was to determine if prebiotic and probiotic feed additives could modify the symptoms that preceded JHS losses and the development of new JHS cases. Findings. Dairy cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum, F. poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Aspergillusflavus, Penicillium roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. paneum and P. citrinum. Mixtures of Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STEC) colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood clot blocking the jejunum. Mycotoxin analysis of the corn crop confirmed the presence of fumonisin, NIV, ZEAR, DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NEO, DAS, HT-2 and T-2. Feed extracts were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% Celmanax removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice paste on feed-extract activity in vitro. Fumonisin, T-2, ZEAR and DON were toxic to bovine cells and 0.1% Celmanax removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. Celmanax also directly decreased E. coli O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a colonic cell line in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choice paste on E. coli O157:H7 colonization in vitro. The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease. Conclusion: The current study confirmed an association between mycotoxigenic fungi in the feed and the development of JHS in cattle. This association was further expanded to include mycotoxins in the feed and mixtures of STECs colonizing the severely hemorrhaged tissues. Future studies should examine the extent of involvement of the different STEC in the infection process. The prebiotic, Celmanax, acted as an anti-adhesive for STEC colonization and a mycotoxin binder in vitro. Future studies should determine the extent of involvement of the prebiotic in altering disease.

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