Objectives. To examine how combinations of state policies, rather than single policies, are related to uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Methods. Using publicly available records and the literature, we characterized policies for each US state and Washington, DC, in 2015 (n = 51), including (1) Medicaid expansion, (2) policies permitting HPV vaccination in pharmacies, (3) school-entry requirements, (4) classroom sex education mandates, and (5) parental education mandates. Using qualitative comparative analysis, we identified which existing combinations of these policies were necessary and sufficient for high HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents, with National Immunization Survey-Teen data. Results. No single policy was necessary or sufficient for high HPV vaccine uptake; however, 1 set of policies had consistently high HPV vaccine uptake: adoption of all policies except parental education mandates (girls: consistency = 1.00, coverage = 0.07; boys: consistency = 0.99, coverage = 0.08). Conclusions. We identified a set of polices related to high HPV vaccine uptake. Future studies should examine how these policies and others, individually and in combination, are associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Public Health Implications. This study provides insight into what sets of policies are consistently related to high HPV vaccine uptake.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health