A reconsideration of risk factos for the Fontan operation

J. L. Myers, J. A. Waldhausen, H. S. Weber, J. D. Arenas, S. E. Cyran, M. M. Gleason, B. G. Baylen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We reviewed our experience in 38 patients who underwent a Fontan operation. In the first five patients ages 7.5 to 23 years (mean, 15 years), a conduit was placed from the right atrium to the small right ventricle or the pulmonary artery (PA). The remaining 33 patients, ages 7 months to 14 years (mean, 4.8 years), had a modified Fontan operation with direct systemic venous or right atrial to PA anastomosis. The diagnosis were tricuspid atresia (n = 14), single ventricle (n = 10), hypoplastic right or left ventricle (n = 9), double-outlet right ventricle with inlet ventricular septal defect and pulmonary atresia or stenosis (n = 3), criss-cross ventricles and transposition of the great arteries (n = 1), and atrioventricular canal and anomolous pulmonary venous connection (n = 1). Thirty-two patients had previous surgery. Other procedures included PA banding (n = 7), systemic to PA shunts (n = 25), Norwood operation (n = 3), and a Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis (n = 1), repair of total anomolous pulmonary venous connection (n = 1), a Blalock-Hanlon atrial septectomy (n = 1), and enlargement of a restrictive ventricular septal defect (n = 1). There were four operative deaths (10.5%), three from low cardiac output and one from subaortic obstruction. There were no deaths in patients younger than 3 years of age (n = 13). Subaortic obstruction developed in six of the seven patients who had pulmonary artery banding and resulted in three deaths. In our experience, diagnosis, previous surgery, type of previous operation, PA pressure, and younger age are not risk factors for early or late death. Subaortic obstruction is a major risk factor for late death. Accordingly we now perform a Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis combined with a systemic to PA shunt in those children with excessive pulmonary blood flow who anatomically are likely to develop subaortic obstruction. A modified Fontan operation can be performed any time after 1 year of age and in some patients after 6 months of age, providing the anatomy and physiology of the patient are acceptable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)738-744
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of surgery
Volume211
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990

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Fontan Procedure
Pulmonary Artery
Heart Ventricles
Ventricular Heart Septal Defects
Lung
Norwood Procedures
Tricuspid Atresia
Double Outlet Right Ventricle
Low Cardiac Output
Transposition of Great Vessels
Pulmonary Valve Stenosis
Heart Atria
Anatomy
Pressure

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery

Cite this

Myers, J. L. ; Waldhausen, J. A. ; Weber, H. S. ; Arenas, J. D. ; Cyran, S. E. ; Gleason, M. M. ; Baylen, B. G. / A reconsideration of risk factos for the Fontan operation. In: Annals of surgery. 1990 ; Vol. 211, No. 6. pp. 738-744.
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abstract = "We reviewed our experience in 38 patients who underwent a Fontan operation. In the first five patients ages 7.5 to 23 years (mean, 15 years), a conduit was placed from the right atrium to the small right ventricle or the pulmonary artery (PA). The remaining 33 patients, ages 7 months to 14 years (mean, 4.8 years), had a modified Fontan operation with direct systemic venous or right atrial to PA anastomosis. The diagnosis were tricuspid atresia (n = 14), single ventricle (n = 10), hypoplastic right or left ventricle (n = 9), double-outlet right ventricle with inlet ventricular septal defect and pulmonary atresia or stenosis (n = 3), criss-cross ventricles and transposition of the great arteries (n = 1), and atrioventricular canal and anomolous pulmonary venous connection (n = 1). Thirty-two patients had previous surgery. Other procedures included PA banding (n = 7), systemic to PA shunts (n = 25), Norwood operation (n = 3), and a Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis (n = 1), repair of total anomolous pulmonary venous connection (n = 1), a Blalock-Hanlon atrial septectomy (n = 1), and enlargement of a restrictive ventricular septal defect (n = 1). There were four operative deaths (10.5{\%}), three from low cardiac output and one from subaortic obstruction. There were no deaths in patients younger than 3 years of age (n = 13). Subaortic obstruction developed in six of the seven patients who had pulmonary artery banding and resulted in three deaths. In our experience, diagnosis, previous surgery, type of previous operation, PA pressure, and younger age are not risk factors for early or late death. Subaortic obstruction is a major risk factor for late death. Accordingly we now perform a Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis combined with a systemic to PA shunt in those children with excessive pulmonary blood flow who anatomically are likely to develop subaortic obstruction. A modified Fontan operation can be performed any time after 1 year of age and in some patients after 6 months of age, providing the anatomy and physiology of the patient are acceptable.",
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A reconsideration of risk factos for the Fontan operation. / Myers, J. L.; Waldhausen, J. A.; Weber, H. S.; Arenas, J. D.; Cyran, S. E.; Gleason, M. M.; Baylen, B. G.

In: Annals of surgery, Vol. 211, No. 6, 01.01.1990, p. 738-744.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - A reconsideration of risk factos for the Fontan operation

AU - Myers, J. L.

AU - Waldhausen, J. A.

AU - Weber, H. S.

AU - Arenas, J. D.

AU - Cyran, S. E.

AU - Gleason, M. M.

AU - Baylen, B. G.

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N2 - We reviewed our experience in 38 patients who underwent a Fontan operation. In the first five patients ages 7.5 to 23 years (mean, 15 years), a conduit was placed from the right atrium to the small right ventricle or the pulmonary artery (PA). The remaining 33 patients, ages 7 months to 14 years (mean, 4.8 years), had a modified Fontan operation with direct systemic venous or right atrial to PA anastomosis. The diagnosis were tricuspid atresia (n = 14), single ventricle (n = 10), hypoplastic right or left ventricle (n = 9), double-outlet right ventricle with inlet ventricular septal defect and pulmonary atresia or stenosis (n = 3), criss-cross ventricles and transposition of the great arteries (n = 1), and atrioventricular canal and anomolous pulmonary venous connection (n = 1). Thirty-two patients had previous surgery. Other procedures included PA banding (n = 7), systemic to PA shunts (n = 25), Norwood operation (n = 3), and a Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis (n = 1), repair of total anomolous pulmonary venous connection (n = 1), a Blalock-Hanlon atrial septectomy (n = 1), and enlargement of a restrictive ventricular septal defect (n = 1). There were four operative deaths (10.5%), three from low cardiac output and one from subaortic obstruction. There were no deaths in patients younger than 3 years of age (n = 13). Subaortic obstruction developed in six of the seven patients who had pulmonary artery banding and resulted in three deaths. In our experience, diagnosis, previous surgery, type of previous operation, PA pressure, and younger age are not risk factors for early or late death. Subaortic obstruction is a major risk factor for late death. Accordingly we now perform a Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis combined with a systemic to PA shunt in those children with excessive pulmonary blood flow who anatomically are likely to develop subaortic obstruction. A modified Fontan operation can be performed any time after 1 year of age and in some patients after 6 months of age, providing the anatomy and physiology of the patient are acceptable.

AB - We reviewed our experience in 38 patients who underwent a Fontan operation. In the first five patients ages 7.5 to 23 years (mean, 15 years), a conduit was placed from the right atrium to the small right ventricle or the pulmonary artery (PA). The remaining 33 patients, ages 7 months to 14 years (mean, 4.8 years), had a modified Fontan operation with direct systemic venous or right atrial to PA anastomosis. The diagnosis were tricuspid atresia (n = 14), single ventricle (n = 10), hypoplastic right or left ventricle (n = 9), double-outlet right ventricle with inlet ventricular septal defect and pulmonary atresia or stenosis (n = 3), criss-cross ventricles and transposition of the great arteries (n = 1), and atrioventricular canal and anomolous pulmonary venous connection (n = 1). Thirty-two patients had previous surgery. Other procedures included PA banding (n = 7), systemic to PA shunts (n = 25), Norwood operation (n = 3), and a Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis (n = 1), repair of total anomolous pulmonary venous connection (n = 1), a Blalock-Hanlon atrial septectomy (n = 1), and enlargement of a restrictive ventricular septal defect (n = 1). There were four operative deaths (10.5%), three from low cardiac output and one from subaortic obstruction. There were no deaths in patients younger than 3 years of age (n = 13). Subaortic obstruction developed in six of the seven patients who had pulmonary artery banding and resulted in three deaths. In our experience, diagnosis, previous surgery, type of previous operation, PA pressure, and younger age are not risk factors for early or late death. Subaortic obstruction is a major risk factor for late death. Accordingly we now perform a Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis combined with a systemic to PA shunt in those children with excessive pulmonary blood flow who anatomically are likely to develop subaortic obstruction. A modified Fontan operation can be performed any time after 1 year of age and in some patients after 6 months of age, providing the anatomy and physiology of the patient are acceptable.

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