We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between normocalcemic parathormone elevation (NPE) and recurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) after surgery, as well as the risk factors of NPE. Out of 309 patients with pHPT that underwent parathyroidectomy. Six months after surgery, 75 patients exhibited NPE with high preoperative serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), postoperative day 1 iPTH, and large parathyroid volume. 15 exhibited NPE at 2 years after surgery with low serum vitamin D levels. Postoperative serum iPTH levels gradually normalized in most patients. Multivariate analysis showed that male patients were at greater risk for postoperative NPE (p < 0.05). Only 3 of 309 patients showed recurrence during the follow-up period. NPE may not predict recurrent hyperparathyroidism or incomplete parathyroidectomy for benign parathyroid lesions. Postoperative NPE thus appears to be a response to severe hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency.
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