A review on human exposure to brominated flame retardants - Particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers

Andreas Sjödin, Donald George Jr Patterson, Å Bergman Åke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

388 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been and are still heavily used as additive or reactive chemicals in polymers and textiles. Only a few of the BFRs have been assessed in human subjects with a major data set on internal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Increasing PBDE levels have been observed in mothers' milk from Sweden as well as in blood from Germany and Norway. The levels are in general lower than PCB levels. However, the PBDE concentrations found in the North Americans are considerably higher compared to European subjects. The PBDEs are dominated by 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is reported both in the general population and in occupationally exposed persons showing the bioavailability of this high molecular weight compound. While the lower and medium brominated diphenyl ethers are persistent, BDE-209 has a fairly short half-life of approximately 2 weeks. Tetrabromobispbenol A (TBBPA) is readily eliminated in humans showing a half-life of about 2 days. Still, TBBPA is accumulated in humans but a continuous exposure to this BFR is required to maintain a certain level in the human subject. TBBPA has not been detected in the general population but in people exposed at work. The current review addresses human exposure routes and levels of BFRs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)829-839
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironment International
Volume29
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2003

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PBDE
ether
half life
milk
bioavailability
PCB
polymer
blood
exposure
flame retardant

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Sjödin, Andreas ; Patterson, Donald George Jr ; Bergman Åke, Å. / A review on human exposure to brominated flame retardants - Particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers. In: Environment International. 2003 ; Vol. 29, No. 6. pp. 829-839.
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A review on human exposure to brominated flame retardants - Particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers. / Sjödin, Andreas; Patterson, Donald George Jr; Bergman Åke, Å.

In: Environment International, Vol. 29, No. 6, 01.01.2003, p. 829-839.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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