A review on the utilization of lignin as a fermentation substrate to produce lignin-modifying enzymes and other value-added products

Attia Iram, Aydin Berenjian, Ali Demirci

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The lignocellulosic biomass is comprised of three major components: cellulose, hemicel-lulose, and lignin. Among these three, cellulose and hemicellulose were already used for the generation of simple sugars and subsequent value-added products. However, lignin is the least applied material in this regard because of its complex and highly variable nature. Regardless, lignin is the most abundant material, and it can be used to produce value-added products such as lignin-modi-fying enzymes (LMEs), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial lipids, vanillin, muconic acid, and many others. This review explores the potential of lignin as the microbial substrate to produce such products. A special focus was given to the different types of lignin and how each one can be used in different microbial and biochemical pathways to produce intermediate products, which can then be used as the value-added products or base to make other products. This review paper will summarize the effectiveness of lignin as a microbial substrate to produce value-added products through microbial fermentations. First, basic structures of lignin along with its types and chemistry are discussed. The subsequent sections highlight LMEs and how such enzymes can enhance the value of lignin by microbial degradation. A major focus was also given to the value-added products that can be produced from lignin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2960
JournalMolecules
Volume26
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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