A role for upstream RNA structure in facilitating the catalytic fold of the genomic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme

Durga M. Chadalavada, Scott M. Knudsen, Shu Ichi Nakano, Philip C. Bevilacqua

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Abstract

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) has a circular RNA genome that replicates by a double rolling-circle mechanism. The genomic and antigenomic versions of HDV contain a ribozyme that undergoes cis-cleavage, thereby processing the transcript into unit-length monomers. A genomic HDV transcript containing 30 nucleotides immediately upstream of the cleavage site was found to have attenuated self-cleavage. Structure mapping and site-directed mutagenesis revealed an inhibitory stretch consisting of upstream nucleotides -24 to -15 that forms a long-range pairing, termed Alt 1, with the 3' strand of P2 (P2(3')) located at the very 3'-end of the ribozyme. Two other alternative pairings were found, Alt 2, which involves upstream nucleotide-ribozyme interactions, and Alt 3, which involves ribozyme-ribozyme interactions. Self-cleavage was rescued 2700 to 20,000-fold by adding DNA oligomers, which sequester the -24/-15 inhibitory stretch in trans. Surprisingly, co-transcriptional self-cleavage occurs when the number of upstream nucleotides is increased to 54. Computer prediction and structure mapping support the existence of an unusually stable upstream hairpin involving nucleotides -54 to -18, termed P(-1)/L(-1), which sequesters the majority of the -24/-15 inhibitory stretch in cis. This hairpin is followed by a stretch of single-stranded pyrimidine-rich nucleotides, termed J(-1/1). Sequence comparison suggests that the P(-1)/L(-1)/J(-1/1) motif is conserved among known genomic HDV isolates, and that the J(-1/1) stretch is conserved among antigenomic HDV isolates. Lastly, the secondary structure of the Alt 1-containing ribozyme provides insight into possible folding intermediates of the ribozyme. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)349-367
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Molecular Biology
Volume301
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 11 2000

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Hepatitis Delta Virus
Catalytic RNA
RNA
Nucleotides
Pyrimidine Nucleotides
Site-Directed Mutagenesis
Genome
DNA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Structural Biology
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

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title = "A role for upstream RNA structure in facilitating the catalytic fold of the genomic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme",
abstract = "Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) has a circular RNA genome that replicates by a double rolling-circle mechanism. The genomic and antigenomic versions of HDV contain a ribozyme that undergoes cis-cleavage, thereby processing the transcript into unit-length monomers. A genomic HDV transcript containing 30 nucleotides immediately upstream of the cleavage site was found to have attenuated self-cleavage. Structure mapping and site-directed mutagenesis revealed an inhibitory stretch consisting of upstream nucleotides -24 to -15 that forms a long-range pairing, termed Alt 1, with the 3' strand of P2 (P2(3')) located at the very 3'-end of the ribozyme. Two other alternative pairings were found, Alt 2, which involves upstream nucleotide-ribozyme interactions, and Alt 3, which involves ribozyme-ribozyme interactions. Self-cleavage was rescued 2700 to 20,000-fold by adding DNA oligomers, which sequester the -24/-15 inhibitory stretch in trans. Surprisingly, co-transcriptional self-cleavage occurs when the number of upstream nucleotides is increased to 54. Computer prediction and structure mapping support the existence of an unusually stable upstream hairpin involving nucleotides -54 to -18, termed P(-1)/L(-1), which sequesters the majority of the -24/-15 inhibitory stretch in cis. This hairpin is followed by a stretch of single-stranded pyrimidine-rich nucleotides, termed J(-1/1). Sequence comparison suggests that the P(-1)/L(-1)/J(-1/1) motif is conserved among known genomic HDV isolates, and that the J(-1/1) stretch is conserved among antigenomic HDV isolates. Lastly, the secondary structure of the Alt 1-containing ribozyme provides insight into possible folding intermediates of the ribozyme. (C) 2000 Academic Press.",
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A role for upstream RNA structure in facilitating the catalytic fold of the genomic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. / Chadalavada, Durga M.; Knudsen, Scott M.; Nakano, Shu Ichi; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

In: Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 301, No. 2, 11.08.2000, p. 349-367.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - A role for upstream RNA structure in facilitating the catalytic fold of the genomic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme

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N2 - Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) has a circular RNA genome that replicates by a double rolling-circle mechanism. The genomic and antigenomic versions of HDV contain a ribozyme that undergoes cis-cleavage, thereby processing the transcript into unit-length monomers. A genomic HDV transcript containing 30 nucleotides immediately upstream of the cleavage site was found to have attenuated self-cleavage. Structure mapping and site-directed mutagenesis revealed an inhibitory stretch consisting of upstream nucleotides -24 to -15 that forms a long-range pairing, termed Alt 1, with the 3' strand of P2 (P2(3')) located at the very 3'-end of the ribozyme. Two other alternative pairings were found, Alt 2, which involves upstream nucleotide-ribozyme interactions, and Alt 3, which involves ribozyme-ribozyme interactions. Self-cleavage was rescued 2700 to 20,000-fold by adding DNA oligomers, which sequester the -24/-15 inhibitory stretch in trans. Surprisingly, co-transcriptional self-cleavage occurs when the number of upstream nucleotides is increased to 54. Computer prediction and structure mapping support the existence of an unusually stable upstream hairpin involving nucleotides -54 to -18, termed P(-1)/L(-1), which sequesters the majority of the -24/-15 inhibitory stretch in cis. This hairpin is followed by a stretch of single-stranded pyrimidine-rich nucleotides, termed J(-1/1). Sequence comparison suggests that the P(-1)/L(-1)/J(-1/1) motif is conserved among known genomic HDV isolates, and that the J(-1/1) stretch is conserved among antigenomic HDV isolates. Lastly, the secondary structure of the Alt 1-containing ribozyme provides insight into possible folding intermediates of the ribozyme. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

AB - Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) has a circular RNA genome that replicates by a double rolling-circle mechanism. The genomic and antigenomic versions of HDV contain a ribozyme that undergoes cis-cleavage, thereby processing the transcript into unit-length monomers. A genomic HDV transcript containing 30 nucleotides immediately upstream of the cleavage site was found to have attenuated self-cleavage. Structure mapping and site-directed mutagenesis revealed an inhibitory stretch consisting of upstream nucleotides -24 to -15 that forms a long-range pairing, termed Alt 1, with the 3' strand of P2 (P2(3')) located at the very 3'-end of the ribozyme. Two other alternative pairings were found, Alt 2, which involves upstream nucleotide-ribozyme interactions, and Alt 3, which involves ribozyme-ribozyme interactions. Self-cleavage was rescued 2700 to 20,000-fold by adding DNA oligomers, which sequester the -24/-15 inhibitory stretch in trans. Surprisingly, co-transcriptional self-cleavage occurs when the number of upstream nucleotides is increased to 54. Computer prediction and structure mapping support the existence of an unusually stable upstream hairpin involving nucleotides -54 to -18, termed P(-1)/L(-1), which sequesters the majority of the -24/-15 inhibitory stretch in cis. This hairpin is followed by a stretch of single-stranded pyrimidine-rich nucleotides, termed J(-1/1). Sequence comparison suggests that the P(-1)/L(-1)/J(-1/1) motif is conserved among known genomic HDV isolates, and that the J(-1/1) stretch is conserved among antigenomic HDV isolates. Lastly, the secondary structure of the Alt 1-containing ribozyme provides insight into possible folding intermediates of the ribozyme. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

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