A simple neutrally buoyant sensor for direct measurement of particle velocity and intensity in water

Thomas B. Gabrielson, David L. Gardnera, Steven L. Garrett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Acoustic particle velocity is commonly inferred from measurement of pressure or pressure gradient; however, in water, direct measurement is simple. A moving-coil sensor embedded in a neutrally buoyant package produces a voltage directly proportional to the particle velocity in the surrounding fluid for frequencies above the mass-spring resonance. Leslie et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 711715 (1956)] built such a sensor by mounting a moving-coil element inside a hollow brass sphere. The sensor described in this paper is identical in principle but is considerably easier to fabricate. Useful from tens of hertz to several kilohertz, this sensor consists of a glass-microballoon-and-epoxy composite cast around a small, commercial geophone. The sensor is inexpensive, rugged, and has good immunity to interference. In conjunction with a pressure hydrophone, acoustic intensity can be measured without the errors associated with subtraction of nearly equal signals (as in the two-hydrophone method).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2227-2237
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Volume97
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995

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sensors
water
hydrophones
coils
microballoons
acoustics
brasses
immunity
mounting
pressure gradients
subtraction
casts
hollow
Particle
Water
Sensor
interference
composite materials
glass
fluids

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics

Cite this

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abstract = "Acoustic particle velocity is commonly inferred from measurement of pressure or pressure gradient; however, in water, direct measurement is simple. A moving-coil sensor embedded in a neutrally buoyant package produces a voltage directly proportional to the particle velocity in the surrounding fluid for frequencies above the mass-spring resonance. Leslie et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 711715 (1956)] built such a sensor by mounting a moving-coil element inside a hollow brass sphere. The sensor described in this paper is identical in principle but is considerably easier to fabricate. Useful from tens of hertz to several kilohertz, this sensor consists of a glass-microballoon-and-epoxy composite cast around a small, commercial geophone. The sensor is inexpensive, rugged, and has good immunity to interference. In conjunction with a pressure hydrophone, acoustic intensity can be measured without the errors associated with subtraction of nearly equal signals (as in the two-hydrophone method).",
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A simple neutrally buoyant sensor for direct measurement of particle velocity and intensity in water. / Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Gardnera, David L.; Garrett, Steven L.

In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 97, No. 4, 01.01.1995, p. 2227-2237.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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