A Smart Wirelessly Powered Homecage for Long-Term High-Throughput Behavioral Experiments

Byunghun Lee, Mehdi Kiani, Maysam Ghovanloo

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    37 Scopus citations


    A wirelessly powered homecage system, called the EnerCage-HC, that is equipped with multicoil wireless power transfer, closed-loop power control, optical behavioral tracking, and a graphic user interface is presented for longitudinal electrophysiology and behavioral neuroscience experiments. The EnerCage-HC system can wirelessly power a mobile unit attached to a small animal subject and also track its behavior in real-time as it is housed inside a standard homecage. The EnerCage-HC system is equipped with one central and four overlapping slanted wire-wound coils with optimal geometries to form three- and four-coil power transmission links while operating at 13.56 MHz. Utilizing multicoil links increases the power transfer efficiency (PTE) compared with conventional two-coil links and also reduces the number of power amplifiers to only one, which significantly reduces the system complexity, cost, and heat dissipation. A Microsoft Kinect installed 90 cm above the homecage localizes the animal position and orientation with 1.6-cm accuracy. Moreover, a power management ASIC, including a high efficiency active rectifier and automatic coil resonance tuning, was fabricated in a 0.35-μm 4M2P standard CMOS process for the mobile unit. The EnerCage-HC achieves a max/min PTE of 36.3%/16.1% at the nominal height of 7 cm. In vivo experiments were conducted on freely behaving rats by continuously delivering 24 mW to the mobile unit for >7 h inside a standard homecage.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number7103283
    Pages (from-to)4905-4916
    Number of pages12
    JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
    Issue number9
    StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Instrumentation
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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