Purpose: Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for the differentiation, function, and survival of osteoclasts, which play a key role in establishment and propagation of skeletal disease in patients with multiple myeloma or bone metastases as well as many other skeletal diseases. Denosumab (AMG 162), a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, was developed to treat patients with skeletal diseases. Experimental Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, multicenter study to determine the safety and efficacy of denosumab in patients with breast cancer (n = 29) or multiple myeloma (n = 25) with radiologically confirmed bone lesions. Patients received a single dose of either denosumab (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg s.c.) or pamidronate (90 mg i.v.). Bone antiresorptive effect was assessed by changes in urinary and serum N-telopeptide levels. Pharmacokinetics of denosumab also were assessed. Results: Following a single s.c. dose of denosumab, levels of urinary and serum N-telopeptide decreased within 1 day, and this decrease lasted through 84 days at the higher denosumab doses. Pamidronate also decreased bone turnover, but the effect diminished progressively through follow-up. Denosumab injections were well tolerated. Mean half-lives of denosumab were 33.3 and 46.3 days for the two highest dosages. Conclusions: A single s.c. dose of denosumab given to patients with multiple myeloma or bone metastases from breast cancer was well tolerated and reduced bone resorption for at least 84 days. The decrease in bone turnover markers was similar in magnitude but more sustained than with i.v. pamidronate.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research