The annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis Kirby, is the most difficult to control insect pest of shortmown golf course turf in the northeastern United States and Eastern Canada. We conducted a survey among golf course superintendents throughout the weevil's area of impact to better understand the severity of damage, prevalence of insecticide resistance, information sources, and trends in management practices. Responses were received from 293 golf courses in 14 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. The average population caused damage to 6.6 fairways, 5.7 tee boxes, and 6.4 greens/collars, amounting to a total of 5.2 ha requiring protection on an 18-hole facility. On average, courses made 3.9 insecticide applications per year and spent US$9,270 on L. maculicollis management. Twenty percent of the responders reported having a pyrethroid-resistant L. maculicollis population. "Resistant" populations were located across the region, though higher-than-average incidence was reported from areas with long histories of managing L. maculicollis. "Resistant" populations caused more damage than "susceptible" populations, reported higher average insecticide budgets, and were more likely to make more than five insecticide applications per year than "susceptible" courses. Surveys indicated that, despite the reliance on chemical controls, 90% of turf managers used multiple monitoring tactics to better time and target controls. The greatest influence on management philosophy was by University personnel (43%) followed by colleagues (31%) and sales/distributors (21%). This survey highlights the need for developing alternatives to chemical insecticides to control L. maculicollis and provides insight into the costs associated with the development of pyrethroid resistance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science
- Insect Science
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law