A Thermally-Regenerative Ammonia-Based Flow Battery for Electrical Energy Recovery from Waste Heat

Xiuping Zhu, Mohammad Rahimi, Christopher A. Gorski, Bruce Logan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations

Abstract

Large amounts of low-grade waste heat (temperatures <130°C) are released during many industrial, geothermal, and solar-based processes. Using thermally-regenerative ammonia solutions, low-grade thermal energy can be converted to electricity in battery systems. To improve reactor efficiency, a compact, ammonia-based flow battery (AFB) was developed and tested at different solution concentrations, flow rates, cell pairs, and circuit connections. The AFB achieved a maximum power density of 45 W m-2 (15 kW m-3) and an energy density of 1260 Wh manolyte -3, with a thermal energy efficiency of 0.7 % (5 % relative to the Carnot efficiency). The power and energy densities of the AFB were greater than those previously reported for thermoelectrochemical and salinity-gradient technologies, and the voltage or current could be increased using stacked cells. These results demonstrated that an ammonia-based flow battery is a promising technology to convert low-grade thermal energy to electricity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)873-879
Number of pages7
JournalChemSusChem
Volume9
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 21 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Energy(all)

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