A third source of developmental differences

Peter C.M. Molenaar, Dorret I. Boomsma, Conor V. Dolan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

113 Scopus citations


An illustrative list is presented of human and animal studies which each point to the existence of a third source, in addition to genetic and environmental factors, underlying phenotypic differences in development. It is argued that this third source may consist of nonlinear epigenetic processes that can create variability at all phenotypical-somatic and behavioral-levels. In a quantitative genetic analysis with human subjects, these processes are confounded with within-family environmental influences. A preliminary model to quantify these influences is introduced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)519-524
Number of pages6
JournalBehavior Genetics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1993

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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