A Very High Energy γ-Ray Survey toward the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy

A. U. Abeysekara, A. Archer, T. Aune, W. Benbow, R. Bird, R. Brose, M. Buchovecky, V. Bugaev, W. Cui, M. K. Daniel, A. Falcone, Q. Feng, J. P. Finley, H. Fleischhack, A. Flinders, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, E. V. Gotthelf, J. Grube, D. HannaO. Hervet, J. Holder, K. Huang, G. Hughes, T. B. Humensky, M. Hütten, C. A. Johnson, P. Kaaret, P. Kar, N. Kelley-Hoskins, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, M. Krause, S. Kumar, M. J. Lang, T. T.Y. Lin, G. Maier, S. McArthur, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, S. O'Brien, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, N. Park, A. Petrashyk, M. Pohl, A. Popkow, E. Pueschel, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, P. T. Reynolds, G. T. Richards, E. Roache, J. Rousselle, C. Rulten, I. Sadeh, M. Santander, G. H. Sembroski, K. Shahinyan, J. Tyler, V. V. Vassiliev, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, A. Weinstein, R. M. Wells, P. Wilcox, A. Wilhelm, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer

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Abstract

We present results from deep observations toward the Cygnus region using 300 hr of very high energy (VHE) γ-ray data taken with the VERITAS Cerenkov telescope array and over 7 yr of high-energy γ-ray data taken with the Fermi satellite at an energy above 1 GeV. As the brightest region of diffuse γ-ray emission in the northern sky, the Cygnus region provides a promising area to probe the origins of cosmic rays. We report the identification of a potential Fermi-LAT counterpart to VER J2031+415 (TeV J2032+4130) and resolve the extended VHE source VER J2019+368 into two source candidates (VER J2018+367∗ and VER J2020+368∗) and characterize their energy spectra. The Fermi-LAT morphology of 3FGL J2021.0+4031e (the Gamma Cygni supernova remnant) was examined, and a region of enhanced emission coincident with VER J2019+407 was identified and jointly fit with the VERITAS data. By modeling 3FGL J2015.6+3709 as two sources, one located at the location of the pulsar wind nebula CTB 87 and one at the quasar QSO J2015+371, a continuous spectrum from 1 GeV to 10 TeV was extracted for VER J2016+371 (CTB 87). An additional 71 locations coincident with Fermi-LAT sources and other potential objects of interest were tested for VHE γ-ray emission, with no emission detected and upper limits on the differential flux placed at an average of 2.3% of the Crab Nebula flux. We interpret these observations in a multiwavelength context and present the most detailed γ-ray view of the region to date.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number134
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume861
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 10 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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