Ablation of fusion materials exposed to high heat flux in an electrothermal plasma discharge as a simulation for hard disruption

J. R. Echols, A. L. Winfrey

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15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Electrothermal plasma sources operating in the confined controlled arc discharge regime produce heat fluxes in the range expected for hard disruptions in future large tokamaks. The radiative heat flux produced inside of the capillary discharge channel is from the formed high density (10 23-1027/m3) plasma with heat fluxes of up to 125 GW/m2 over a period of 100 μs, making such sources excellent simulators for ablation studies of plasma-facing materials in tokamaks during hard disruptions. Graphite, beryllium, lithium, stainless steel, tungsten, copper, and molybdenum are among the materials proposed for use in fusion reactors. Computational experiments with the ETFLOW code using heat fluxes between 10 and 125 GW/m2 have shown low total erosion for the low-z materials Li, Be and C and higher erosion for high-z materials Fe, Cu, Mo and W. The time rate of material erosion for various ranges of heat fluxes shows increased erosion with time evolution over the 150 μs pulse length of the simulated disruption event. At the highest values of simulated heat flux, low-z materials were found to ablate almost identically. At all simulated values of heat flux, the ablation of high-z materials correlated positively with the z-number.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)60-67
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Fusion Energy
Volume33
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2014

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Ablation
plasma jets
ablation
Heat flux
heat flux
Fusion reactions
fusion
Plasmas
erosion
Erosion
simulation
Facings
Plasma sources
fusion reactors
Beryllium
Fusion reactors
arc discharges
beryllium
Molybdenum
simulators

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering

Cite this

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abstract = "Electrothermal plasma sources operating in the confined controlled arc discharge regime produce heat fluxes in the range expected for hard disruptions in future large tokamaks. The radiative heat flux produced inside of the capillary discharge channel is from the formed high density (10 23-1027/m3) plasma with heat fluxes of up to 125 GW/m2 over a period of 100 μs, making such sources excellent simulators for ablation studies of plasma-facing materials in tokamaks during hard disruptions. Graphite, beryllium, lithium, stainless steel, tungsten, copper, and molybdenum are among the materials proposed for use in fusion reactors. Computational experiments with the ETFLOW code using heat fluxes between 10 and 125 GW/m2 have shown low total erosion for the low-z materials Li, Be and C and higher erosion for high-z materials Fe, Cu, Mo and W. The time rate of material erosion for various ranges of heat fluxes shows increased erosion with time evolution over the 150 μs pulse length of the simulated disruption event. At the highest values of simulated heat flux, low-z materials were found to ablate almost identically. At all simulated values of heat flux, the ablation of high-z materials correlated positively with the z-number.",
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N2 - Electrothermal plasma sources operating in the confined controlled arc discharge regime produce heat fluxes in the range expected for hard disruptions in future large tokamaks. The radiative heat flux produced inside of the capillary discharge channel is from the formed high density (10 23-1027/m3) plasma with heat fluxes of up to 125 GW/m2 over a period of 100 μs, making such sources excellent simulators for ablation studies of plasma-facing materials in tokamaks during hard disruptions. Graphite, beryllium, lithium, stainless steel, tungsten, copper, and molybdenum are among the materials proposed for use in fusion reactors. Computational experiments with the ETFLOW code using heat fluxes between 10 and 125 GW/m2 have shown low total erosion for the low-z materials Li, Be and C and higher erosion for high-z materials Fe, Cu, Mo and W. The time rate of material erosion for various ranges of heat fluxes shows increased erosion with time evolution over the 150 μs pulse length of the simulated disruption event. At the highest values of simulated heat flux, low-z materials were found to ablate almost identically. At all simulated values of heat flux, the ablation of high-z materials correlated positively with the z-number.

AB - Electrothermal plasma sources operating in the confined controlled arc discharge regime produce heat fluxes in the range expected for hard disruptions in future large tokamaks. The radiative heat flux produced inside of the capillary discharge channel is from the formed high density (10 23-1027/m3) plasma with heat fluxes of up to 125 GW/m2 over a period of 100 μs, making such sources excellent simulators for ablation studies of plasma-facing materials in tokamaks during hard disruptions. Graphite, beryllium, lithium, stainless steel, tungsten, copper, and molybdenum are among the materials proposed for use in fusion reactors. Computational experiments with the ETFLOW code using heat fluxes between 10 and 125 GW/m2 have shown low total erosion for the low-z materials Li, Be and C and higher erosion for high-z materials Fe, Cu, Mo and W. The time rate of material erosion for various ranges of heat fluxes shows increased erosion with time evolution over the 150 μs pulse length of the simulated disruption event. At the highest values of simulated heat flux, low-z materials were found to ablate almost identically. At all simulated values of heat flux, the ablation of high-z materials correlated positively with the z-number.

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