Insulin binding sites are present on purified nuclear envelopes from liver and other tissues, and EM autoradiographs and other types of studies indicate that insulin can enter intact target cells and interact with several types of intracellular membranes, including the nuclear envelope. More recent studies indicate that insulin has direct effects on both mRNA efflux from isolated nuclei and nuclear envelope NTPase, the enzyme that regulates mRNA efflux. These studies raise the possibility, therefore, that insulin regulates mRNA levels in target cells by directly influencing nuclear membrane functions as NTPase. Since insulin does not dramatically elevate mRNA levels for all proteins, the question arises as to how insulin selectively increases mRNA for specific mRNAs. One possibility is that there is targeting of specific mRNA molecules for specific pore complexes and that insulin may only influence a certain fraction of the nuclear pores. Thus, continued investigation is needed concerning the role of polypeptide hormones such as insulin in nucleocytoplasmic exchange.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology