There is a great need for pharmacological approaches to enhance neural progenitor cell (NPC) function particularly in neuroinflammatory diseases with failed neuroregeneration. In diseases such as multiple sclerosis and stroke, T-cell infiltration occurs in periventricular zones where NPCs are located and is associated with irreversible neuronal loss.We studied the effect of T-cellactivation on NPC functions. NPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation were impaired by granzyme B (GrB) released by the T-cells. GrB mediated its effects by the activation of a Gi-protein-coupled receptor leading to decreased intracellular levels of cAMP and subsequent expression of the voltagedependent potassium channel, Kv1.3. Importantly, blocking channel activity with margatoxin or blocking its expression reversed the inhibitory effects of GrB on NPCs. We have thus identified a novel pathway in neurogenesis. The increased expression of Kv1.3 in pathological conditions makes it a novel target for promoting neurorestoration.
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