Activation tagging of Arabidopsis POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION2 promotes hypocotyl elongation, leaf expansion, stem lignification, mechanical stiffening, and lodging

Chaowen Xiao, William J. Barnes, M. Shafayet Zamil, Hojae Yi, Virendra Puri, Charles T. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pectin is the most abundant component of primary cell walls in eudicot plants. The modification and degradation of pectin affects multiple processes during plant development, including cell expansion, organ initiation, and cell separation. However, the extent to which pectin degradation by polygalacturonases affects stem development and secondary wall formation remains unclear. Using an activation tag screen, we identified a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line with longer etiolated hypocotyls, which overexpresses a gene encoding a polygalacturonase. We designated this gene as POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION2 (PGX2), and the corresponding activation tagged line as PGX2AT. PGX2 is widely expressed in young seedlings and in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and siliques of adult plants. PGX2-GFP localizes to the cell wall, and PGX2AT plants show higher total polygalacturonase activity and smaller pectin molecular masses than wild-type controls, supporting a function for this protein in apoplastic pectin degradation. A heterologously expressed, truncated version of PGX2 also displays polygalacturonase activity in vitro. Like previously identified PGX1AT plants, PGX2AT plants have longer hypocotyls and larger rosette leaves, but they also uniquely display early flowering, earlier stem lignification, and lodging stems with enhanced mechanical stiffness that is possibly due to decreased stem thickness. Together, these results indicate that PGX2 both functions in cell expansion and influences secondary wall formation, providing a possible link between these two developmental processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1159-1173
Number of pages15
JournalPlant Journal
Volume89
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

Fingerprint

Polygalacturonase
Hypocotyl
lignification
lodging
leaf development
polygalacturonase
Arabidopsis
pectins
hypocotyls
stems
Cell Wall
degradation
cell walls
Plant Development
Cell Separation
cells
mature plants
Seedlings
Genes
plant development

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Activation tagging of Arabidopsis POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION2 promotes hypocotyl elongation, leaf expansion, stem lignification, mechanical stiffening, and lodging",
abstract = "Pectin is the most abundant component of primary cell walls in eudicot plants. The modification and degradation of pectin affects multiple processes during plant development, including cell expansion, organ initiation, and cell separation. However, the extent to which pectin degradation by polygalacturonases affects stem development and secondary wall formation remains unclear. Using an activation tag screen, we identified a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line with longer etiolated hypocotyls, which overexpresses a gene encoding a polygalacturonase. We designated this gene as POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION2 (PGX2), and the corresponding activation tagged line as PGX2AT. PGX2 is widely expressed in young seedlings and in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and siliques of adult plants. PGX2-GFP localizes to the cell wall, and PGX2AT plants show higher total polygalacturonase activity and smaller pectin molecular masses than wild-type controls, supporting a function for this protein in apoplastic pectin degradation. A heterologously expressed, truncated version of PGX2 also displays polygalacturonase activity in vitro. Like previously identified PGX1AT plants, PGX2AT plants have longer hypocotyls and larger rosette leaves, but they also uniquely display early flowering, earlier stem lignification, and lodging stems with enhanced mechanical stiffness that is possibly due to decreased stem thickness. Together, these results indicate that PGX2 both functions in cell expansion and influences secondary wall formation, providing a possible link between these two developmental processes.",
author = "Chaowen Xiao and Barnes, {William J.} and Zamil, {M. Shafayet} and Hojae Yi and Virendra Puri and Anderson, {Charles T.}",
year = "2017",
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T1 - Activation tagging of Arabidopsis POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION2 promotes hypocotyl elongation, leaf expansion, stem lignification, mechanical stiffening, and lodging

AU - Xiao, Chaowen

AU - Barnes, William J.

AU - Zamil, M. Shafayet

AU - Yi, Hojae

AU - Puri, Virendra

AU - Anderson, Charles T.

PY - 2017/3/1

Y1 - 2017/3/1

N2 - Pectin is the most abundant component of primary cell walls in eudicot plants. The modification and degradation of pectin affects multiple processes during plant development, including cell expansion, organ initiation, and cell separation. However, the extent to which pectin degradation by polygalacturonases affects stem development and secondary wall formation remains unclear. Using an activation tag screen, we identified a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line with longer etiolated hypocotyls, which overexpresses a gene encoding a polygalacturonase. We designated this gene as POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION2 (PGX2), and the corresponding activation tagged line as PGX2AT. PGX2 is widely expressed in young seedlings and in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and siliques of adult plants. PGX2-GFP localizes to the cell wall, and PGX2AT plants show higher total polygalacturonase activity and smaller pectin molecular masses than wild-type controls, supporting a function for this protein in apoplastic pectin degradation. A heterologously expressed, truncated version of PGX2 also displays polygalacturonase activity in vitro. Like previously identified PGX1AT plants, PGX2AT plants have longer hypocotyls and larger rosette leaves, but they also uniquely display early flowering, earlier stem lignification, and lodging stems with enhanced mechanical stiffness that is possibly due to decreased stem thickness. Together, these results indicate that PGX2 both functions in cell expansion and influences secondary wall formation, providing a possible link between these two developmental processes.

AB - Pectin is the most abundant component of primary cell walls in eudicot plants. The modification and degradation of pectin affects multiple processes during plant development, including cell expansion, organ initiation, and cell separation. However, the extent to which pectin degradation by polygalacturonases affects stem development and secondary wall formation remains unclear. Using an activation tag screen, we identified a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line with longer etiolated hypocotyls, which overexpresses a gene encoding a polygalacturonase. We designated this gene as POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION2 (PGX2), and the corresponding activation tagged line as PGX2AT. PGX2 is widely expressed in young seedlings and in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and siliques of adult plants. PGX2-GFP localizes to the cell wall, and PGX2AT plants show higher total polygalacturonase activity and smaller pectin molecular masses than wild-type controls, supporting a function for this protein in apoplastic pectin degradation. A heterologously expressed, truncated version of PGX2 also displays polygalacturonase activity in vitro. Like previously identified PGX1AT plants, PGX2AT plants have longer hypocotyls and larger rosette leaves, but they also uniquely display early flowering, earlier stem lignification, and lodging stems with enhanced mechanical stiffness that is possibly due to decreased stem thickness. Together, these results indicate that PGX2 both functions in cell expansion and influences secondary wall formation, providing a possible link between these two developmental processes.

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