This article describes an actuator curve embedding (ACE) concept to model arbitrary lifting lines using body forces within large-eddy simulation (LES). The new method removes some inconsistencies in body-force projection of the actuator line model (ALM) commonly used to represent wind turbine blades in atmospheric boundary-layer simulations. The concept and algorithm of ACE are presented followed by selected results for various blade planform and tip shapes that signify both the predictive capability and the advantages of the ACE concept. Examples include an elliptic wing, the NREL Phase VI rotor in parked and rotating conditions, and the NREL 5-MW turbine.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering