Objectives: The role of routine C4d staining in endomyocardial biopsy specimens is uncertain. The implications of a diagnosis of acute cellular rejection (ACR) with a positive C4d with or without any evidence of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) are unclear. This study sought to evaluate a distinct phenotype of ACR+/C4d+ in AMR- patients. Methods: Data on C4d, ACR, and AMR were collected. Donor-specific antibody (DSA), panel-reactive antibody (PRA), flow crossmatch, and data on ACR and AMR episodes were also reviewed. Results: Thirty-five patients were followed. Group I with C4d+ biopsy specimens was compared with group II with C4d- biopsy specimens. ACR greater than 1R was higher in group I compared with group II (50% vs 7.4%; P =.01). Clinical suspicion of AMR, positive retrospective crossmatches, and detection of de novo DSA were also higher in group I. Conclusions: Our result indicate that C4d and ACR positivity in posttransplant patients may be a harbinger of a subclinical form of asymptomatic AMR.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine