Objectives To describe a 15-year single-institution experience of 41 cases of acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFRS), identify clinical indicators predictive of AIFRS, and discuss our approach to these high-acuity patients. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary referral center; The Pennsylvania State University Hershey Medical Center. Subjects and Methods A retrospective review was performed for AIFRS consultations between September 1999 and March 2014. Variables reviewed included underlying condition, presenting symptoms, absolute neutrophil count, disease extent on examination, radiographic findings, medical treatment, biopsy results, surgical treatment, and outcomes. Univariate analysis was performed to determine variables significantly associated with AIFRS. Outcome measures were assessed and patient assessment algorithm developed. Results Of 131 patients evaluated, 41 were diagnosed with AIFRS; 92.7% had an underlying hematologic malignancy. Disease predictive variables included absolute neutrophil count <500/1/4L (P <.0001; sensitivity = 78%), mucosal abnormalities of middle turbinate (P <.0001; specificity = 88%) and septum (P <.0001; specificity = 97%), and specifically, necrosis of the middle turbinate (P <.0001; specificity = 97%). Twenty-five AIFRS patients (61%) survived until discharge; 25% (n = 10) expired secondary to AIFRS infection explicitly. Conclusion This series represents one of the largest single-institution experiences of AIFRS published to date. Timely diagnosis is necessary to improve patient outcomes and limit morbidity. Maintaining a high index of suspicion in at-risk patient populations, followed by prompt evaluation and management, is crucial in suspected AIFRS. The presence or absence of certain findings appear to correlate with biopsy results and may aid in appropriately gauging clinical suspicion for the presence of AIFRS.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (United States)|
|State||Published - Apr 2016|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes