Acute pulmonary response in healthy, nonsmoking adults to inhalation of formaldehyde and carbon

Donald J. Green, Rebecca Bascom, Edwin M. Healey, John R. Hebei, Larry R. Sauder, Thomas J. Kulle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a common chemical found in occupational and residential environments and has been suggested as a cause of asthmalike symptoms in some individuals. Clinical and animal studies suggest that HCHO adsorbed on respirable particles may elicit a greater pulmonary physiologic and inflammatory effect than gas-eous HCHO alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if respirable carbon particles have a synergistic effect on the acute symptomatic and pulmonary physiologic response to HCHO inhalation. We randomly exposed 24 normal, nonsmoking, methacholine-nonreactive subjects to2h each of clean air, 3 ppm formaldehyde, 0.5 mg/m3 respirable activated carbon aerosol, and the combination of 3 ppm formaldehyde plus activated carbon aerosol. The subjects engaged in intermittent heavy bicycle exercise (VE = 57 l/min) for 15 min each half hour. Measures of response included symptom questionnaires, spirometry, body plethysmography, and postexposure serial peak flows. Formaldehyde exposure was associated with significant increases in reported eye irritation, nasal irritation, throat irritation, headache, chest discomfort, and odor. We observed synergistic increases in cough, but not in other irritant respiratory tract symptoms, with inhalation of formaldehyde and carbon. Small (<5%) synergistic decreases in FVC and FEV3 were also seen. We observed no HCHO effect on FEV1; however, we did observe small (<10%) significant decreases in FEF25-75% and SCaw which may be indicative of increased airway tone. Overall, our results demonstrated synergism, but the effect is small and its clinical significance is uncertain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-275
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health
Volume28
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 1989

Fingerprint

Formaldehyde
Inhalation
Carbon
Lung
Aerosols
Activated carbon
Plethysmography
Methacholine Chloride
Irritants
Spirometry
Pharynx
Exercise equipment
Nose
Cough
Respiratory System
Headache
Odors
Thorax
Gases
Air

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution

Cite this

Green, Donald J. ; Bascom, Rebecca ; Healey, Edwin M. ; Hebei, John R. ; Sauder, Larry R. ; Kulle, Thomas J. / Acute pulmonary response in healthy, nonsmoking adults to inhalation of formaldehyde and carbon. In: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 1989 ; Vol. 28, No. 3. pp. 261-275.
@article{792ef5549f0744b48038809dd77ac83b,
title = "Acute pulmonary response in healthy, nonsmoking adults to inhalation of formaldehyde and carbon",
abstract = "Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a common chemical found in occupational and residential environments and has been suggested as a cause of asthmalike symptoms in some individuals. Clinical and animal studies suggest that HCHO adsorbed on respirable particles may elicit a greater pulmonary physiologic and inflammatory effect than gas-eous HCHO alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if respirable carbon particles have a synergistic effect on the acute symptomatic and pulmonary physiologic response to HCHO inhalation. We randomly exposed 24 normal, nonsmoking, methacholine-nonreactive subjects to2h each of clean air, 3 ppm formaldehyde, 0.5 mg/m3 respirable activated carbon aerosol, and the combination of 3 ppm formaldehyde plus activated carbon aerosol. The subjects engaged in intermittent heavy bicycle exercise (VE = 57 l/min) for 15 min each half hour. Measures of response included symptom questionnaires, spirometry, body plethysmography, and postexposure serial peak flows. Formaldehyde exposure was associated with significant increases in reported eye irritation, nasal irritation, throat irritation, headache, chest discomfort, and odor. We observed synergistic increases in cough, but not in other irritant respiratory tract symptoms, with inhalation of formaldehyde and carbon. Small (<5{\%}) synergistic decreases in FVC and FEV3 were also seen. We observed no HCHO effect on FEV1; however, we did observe small (<10{\%}) significant decreases in FEF25-75{\%} and SCaw which may be indicative of increased airway tone. Overall, our results demonstrated synergism, but the effect is small and its clinical significance is uncertain.",
author = "Green, {Donald J.} and Rebecca Bascom and Healey, {Edwin M.} and Hebei, {John R.} and Sauder, {Larry R.} and Kulle, {Thomas J.}",
year = "1989",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1080/15287398909531347",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "28",
pages = "261--275",
journal = "Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health",
issn = "0098-4108",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "3",

}

Acute pulmonary response in healthy, nonsmoking adults to inhalation of formaldehyde and carbon. / Green, Donald J.; Bascom, Rebecca; Healey, Edwin M.; Hebei, John R.; Sauder, Larry R.; Kulle, Thomas J.

In: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Vol. 28, No. 3, 01.11.1989, p. 261-275.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acute pulmonary response in healthy, nonsmoking adults to inhalation of formaldehyde and carbon

AU - Green, Donald J.

AU - Bascom, Rebecca

AU - Healey, Edwin M.

AU - Hebei, John R.

AU - Sauder, Larry R.

AU - Kulle, Thomas J.

PY - 1989/11/1

Y1 - 1989/11/1

N2 - Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a common chemical found in occupational and residential environments and has been suggested as a cause of asthmalike symptoms in some individuals. Clinical and animal studies suggest that HCHO adsorbed on respirable particles may elicit a greater pulmonary physiologic and inflammatory effect than gas-eous HCHO alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if respirable carbon particles have a synergistic effect on the acute symptomatic and pulmonary physiologic response to HCHO inhalation. We randomly exposed 24 normal, nonsmoking, methacholine-nonreactive subjects to2h each of clean air, 3 ppm formaldehyde, 0.5 mg/m3 respirable activated carbon aerosol, and the combination of 3 ppm formaldehyde plus activated carbon aerosol. The subjects engaged in intermittent heavy bicycle exercise (VE = 57 l/min) for 15 min each half hour. Measures of response included symptom questionnaires, spirometry, body plethysmography, and postexposure serial peak flows. Formaldehyde exposure was associated with significant increases in reported eye irritation, nasal irritation, throat irritation, headache, chest discomfort, and odor. We observed synergistic increases in cough, but not in other irritant respiratory tract symptoms, with inhalation of formaldehyde and carbon. Small (<5%) synergistic decreases in FVC and FEV3 were also seen. We observed no HCHO effect on FEV1; however, we did observe small (<10%) significant decreases in FEF25-75% and SCaw which may be indicative of increased airway tone. Overall, our results demonstrated synergism, but the effect is small and its clinical significance is uncertain.

AB - Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a common chemical found in occupational and residential environments and has been suggested as a cause of asthmalike symptoms in some individuals. Clinical and animal studies suggest that HCHO adsorbed on respirable particles may elicit a greater pulmonary physiologic and inflammatory effect than gas-eous HCHO alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if respirable carbon particles have a synergistic effect on the acute symptomatic and pulmonary physiologic response to HCHO inhalation. We randomly exposed 24 normal, nonsmoking, methacholine-nonreactive subjects to2h each of clean air, 3 ppm formaldehyde, 0.5 mg/m3 respirable activated carbon aerosol, and the combination of 3 ppm formaldehyde plus activated carbon aerosol. The subjects engaged in intermittent heavy bicycle exercise (VE = 57 l/min) for 15 min each half hour. Measures of response included symptom questionnaires, spirometry, body plethysmography, and postexposure serial peak flows. Formaldehyde exposure was associated with significant increases in reported eye irritation, nasal irritation, throat irritation, headache, chest discomfort, and odor. We observed synergistic increases in cough, but not in other irritant respiratory tract symptoms, with inhalation of formaldehyde and carbon. Small (<5%) synergistic decreases in FVC and FEV3 were also seen. We observed no HCHO effect on FEV1; however, we did observe small (<10%) significant decreases in FEF25-75% and SCaw which may be indicative of increased airway tone. Overall, our results demonstrated synergism, but the effect is small and its clinical significance is uncertain.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024386176&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024386176&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/15287398909531347

DO - 10.1080/15287398909531347

M3 - Article

VL - 28

SP - 261

EP - 275

JO - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health

JF - Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health

SN - 0098-4108

IS - 3

ER -