Adaptive real-time closed-loop temperature control for ultrasound hyperthermia using magnetic resonance thermometry

L. Sun, C. M. Collins, J. L. Schiano, M. B. Smith, N. B. Smith

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    18 Scopus citations


    Previous researchers have successfully demonstrated the application of temperature feedback control for thermal treatment of disease using MR thermometry. Using the temperature-dependent proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift, ultrasound heating for hyperthermia to a target organ (such as the prostate) can be tightly controlled. However, using fixed gain controllers, the response of the target to ultrasound heating varies with type, size, location, shape, stage of growth, and proximity to other vulnerable organs. To adjust for clinical variables, feedback self-tuning regulator (STR) and model reference adaptive control (MRAC) methods have been designed and implemented using real-time, online MR thermometry by adjusting the output power to an ultrasound array to quickly reach the hyperthermia target temperatures. The use of fast adaptive controllers in this application is advantageous because adaptive controllers do not require a priori knowledge of the initial tissue properties and blood perfusion and can quickly reach the steady-state target temperature in the presence of dynamic tissue properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, blood perfusion). This research was conducted to rapidly achieve and manage therapeutic temperatures from an ultrasound array using novel MRI-guided adaptive closed-loop controllers both in ex vivo and in vivo experiments. The ex vivo phantom experiments with bovine muscle (n = 5) show that within 6 ± 0.2 minutes, the tissue temperature increased by 8 ± 1.37°C. Using rabbits' (n = 5) thigh muscle, the in vivo experiments demonstrated the target temperature reached 44.5°C ± 1.2°C in 8.0 ± 0.5 minutes. The preliminary in vivo experiment with canine prostate hyperthermia achieved 43 ± 2°C in 6.5 ± 0.5 minutes. These results demonstrate that the adaptive controllers with MR thermometry are able to effectively track the target temperature with dynamic tissue properties.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)51-63
    Number of pages13
    JournalConcepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B: Magnetic Resonance Engineering
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - Oct 2005

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
    • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
    • Spectroscopy
    • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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