In the past few years, the adaptation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies for the building industry has reached new levels of sophistication, triggering design and development of novel 3D-printable materials and material interfaces; inspiring innovative architectural details; rethinking of material-specific printing systems; and enabling significant understanding of the interrelationship between multiple variables and aspects of design thinking and processes. For example, there are notable consequences of toolpath design in relation to material design, spatial experiences, and structural performance. AM has been recognized for its unique affordances, including flexibilities and freedom of free-form construction; speed of construction; reduced construction time and cost; reduced waste of resources, materials, labor, and energy; and increased safety due to innovations in automated construction. This technology has far-reaching implications and impact by augmenting conventional technologies and wisdom. This paper presents an overview of materials, systems, design explorations, and selected results in the context of NASA Centennial Challenge’s 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge Competition, leading to the production of the first fully 3D-printed, fully enclosed concrete habitat. The paper also reflects on the potential impacts of this technology when fully adopted by the construction industry.