ADHD subtypes and comorbid anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder: Differences in sleep problems

Susan Dickerson Mayes, Susan L. Calhoun, Edward O. Bixler, Alexandros N. Vgontzas, Fauzia Mahr, Jolene Hillwig-Garcia, Belal Elamir, Linda Edhere-Ekezie, Matthew Parvin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

122 Scopus citations


Objective: Sleep problems were analyzed in children with ADHD (Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder). Methods: Scales were completed by parents of 135 control children and 681 children with ADHD combined type (ADHD-C) or inattentive type (ADHD-I) with or without comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, or depression. Results: Children with ADHD-I alone had the fewest sleep problems and did not differ from controls. Children with ADHD-C had more sleep problems than controls and children with ADHD-I. Comorbid anxiety/depression increased sleep problems, whereas ODD did not. Daytime sleepiness was greatest in ADHD-I and was associated with sleeping more (not less) than normal. Medicated children had greater difficulty falling asleep than unmedicated children. Conclusions: Differences in sleep problems were found as a function of ADHD subtype, comorbidity, and medication. The Author 2008.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)328-337
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of pediatric psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2009


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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