Adiponectin is a cytokine hormone originally found to be secreted exclusively by white adipose tissue. However, recent evidences suggest that adiponectin is also produced in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. The present study investigated the expression of adiponectin mRNA in various tissues in the chicken. We also studied the effect of food deprivation on adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue, liver, anterior pituitary gland, and diencephalon in the chicken. The open reading frame of chicken adiponectin cDNA consists of 735 nucleotides that were 65-68% homologous to various mammalian adiponectin cDNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of chicken adiponectin contains 22 glycine-X-Y repeats (in which X and Y represent any amino acid) at the N-terminal end as found in the mammalian adiponectin. By RT-PCR and Northern analysis, we detected chicken adiponectin mRNA transcript in adipose tissue, liver, anterior pituitary gland, diencephalon, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, ovary, and spleen but not in blood. Adiponectin mRNA expression in various tissues was quantitated using real-time quantitative PCR and found to be the highest in adipose tissue, followed by liver, anterior pituitary, diencephalon, kidney, and skeletal muscle. We also found that adiponectin mRNA quantity was significantly decreased after a 48-h food deprivation in adipose tissue, liver, and anterior pituitary gland but not in diencephalon. Our results provide novel evidence that, unlike mammals, adiponectin gene is expressed in several tissues in the chicken and that its expression is influenced by food deprivation.
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