Purpose of the Review Peripheral nerve injuries are common, debilitating, and costly. The human body’s innate regenerative capacity is slow, and nerves are often misguided. The purpose of this article is to review a specific cellular, regenerative engineering technique that holds promise for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. Recent Findings Over the past several decades, research has focused on the utilization of stem cells for peripheral nerve repair. More recently, stem cells collected from adipose tissue (adipose-derived stem cells or ADSCs) have gained traction due to their relative ease of collection and differentiation potential. Both undifferentiated and Schwann cell-like differentiated ADSCs have been used to seed conduits with variable results. Summary Technical and ethical issues surrounding stem cells’ self-expansion potential and genetic makeup exist. Ultimately, randomized control trials and FDA approval will be required before widespread clinical translation in the US is realized.
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